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degree to which target audience likes or dislikes campaign  materials

process by which suppliers or other actors are trained, certified, and monitored to ensure  they meet national standards

advocacy activities
activities designed to increase support of an idea or cause

ability to bear the cost of a product or service

analysis plan
how the collected data will be analyzed

at scale
thinking big  from the beginning to plan interventions that can be replicated effectively and efficiently across an entire country

degree to which campagn materials are appealing to target audience

supply of a product in a given market


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backward research
a research approach in which the researcher starts with a clear idea of what decisions the data will support, and then designs and implements the research effort to obtain this supporting information

basic frequencies
common characteristics in a collection of data

behavior change communication (BCC)
strategic use of communication to promote positive health outcomes; based on proven theories and models of behavior change

behavioral determinant
factor that  facilitates or inhibits a behavior among a target population; can be internal (beliefs about feces) or external (sanctions for open defecation)

name, term, sign, symbol, or design used to identify the manufacturer or supplier of a product or service

developing a name for a product that reflects its benefits and aspirations instead of its features or technology options; encourages customers to ask for a product by name

video or audio recording of a quality suitable for broadcasting

business aggregators
organize or manage entire supply chain


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capacity building
systematic process that uses a range of interventions to improve the performance of an organization or individual in the public or private sector; may focus on activities such as monitoring, mason training, or strengthening the business skills of sanitation entrepreneurs

capacity building specialist
manages the capacity-building process incudes needs assessment, development of strategies and plans, design and implementation of interventions to improve performance, and monitoring and evaluation

selecting individuals for roles in a commercial or video drama

communication channels
strategies to communicate campaign messages and materials to target audience; options  include mass media, interpersonal communications, and direct consumer contact events

communication concepts
broad directions for communication campaign, providing guidance for execution of each element; based on  formative research

communication products
TV commercials, video dramas, flyers, billboards, etc., intended to convey a message

Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)
methodology to mobilize communities to take action to eliminate open defecation and become open defecation free

degree to which target audience understands  messages communicated through campaign materials

contact report
a report that summarizes discussion and agreements that took place during a meeting

amount of monetary or nonmonetary value used  to produce or purchase a product or service

counseling cards
used to facilitate discussions between a counselor and target audience; typically include illustrations on one side and question prompts on the reverse

creative brief
reference document developed for ad agency that specifies  target populations,  behaviors, and communication objectives for campaign,  based on formative research; lays the foundation for the design of the communication campaign;  also known as ad agency brief, communications brief brief


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quantity of product or service customers are willing to purchase at a certain price

demand responsive
product design that incorporates features and benefits desired by target population;  formative research and demand-side analysis can be used to identify demands

direct consumer contact (DCC)
community events that communicate key behavior change messages using entertainment-education approaches

also referred to as place; movement of products to providers, making them available for purchase by consumers 

district and regional coordinators
coordinates capacity building,  promotion, and other activities within  geographic area; works closely with contracted firms to coordinate activities with local governments and small-scale service providers

dummy table
illustrative sample that show variable names and statistical measures; do not include data; also referred to as mock table


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an approach to presenting information that both entertains and conveys a message

experiential learning cycle
methodology that builds on the knowledge and experience of participants to increase retention of information

exposure survey
population-based survey conducted to track the level of exposure to  communication channels and gauge message recall; also known as tracking survey


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fieldwork report
document summarizing fieldwork timing and implementation, highlighting any circumstances that could influence interpretation of results

fixed point defecation
defecating in constructed toilets

focus group discussion
moderator  guides  a small group of participants  through a series of topics;  participants often share one or more characteristic such as age group, gender, or sanitation status

formative research
conducted during program development to assess current sanitation behaviors, behavioral determinants, and  the types  of sanitation products and services needed;   may include  a combination of quanitative,  qualitative,  primary, and secondary methods; findings should inform the intervention on a continuous basis

Four P's
core of marketing initiatives, includes product, price, place, and promotion; also known as marketing mix

standardize certains aspects of a business such as branding or price to create efficiencies and support scaling up

frontline provider
person  offering supply of sanitation goods and/or services to households; also known as  supplier or point of sale


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higher-level goals
outcomes or intermediary outcomes


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degree to which target audiences feels the campaign is relevant to them

in depth interview (IDI)
one-on-one interview with key informant, stakeholder, or member of  target population; useful to obtain sensitive, complex, or detailed information  or when there is no benefit in having participants interact

informal assessment
unstructured research; used to gain a big-picture view of topics such as the supply chain and the range of sanitation products and services

interpersonal communication (IPC)
two-way communication in small group settings or one-on-one during which a researcher can ask questions and clarify answers; suitable for skill building and for joint problem-solving


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key informant interviews
qualitative research method used to collect information from decision makers, community leaders, technical experts, and others on topics such as target markets, competitors, and potential strategies


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lot quality assurance surveys (LQAS)
research method in which small random samples of the target population are surveyed to provide information useful to local managers


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market segmentation
a marketing approach that recognizes that markets are rarely homogenous; different segement of the population may have  different needs, preferences, willingness to pay, and other factors

marketing mix
core of marketing initiatives, includes product, price, place, and promotion; also known as the Four P's

marketing plan
document detailing how  marketing strategy will be implemented, by whom, when, and at what cost, within a one to two year timeframe;  includes action plans, budget,  research and monitoring plan; may include lower-level goals or outputs

marketing specialist
manages research and advertising agencies, interprets results from formative research, develops  marketing strategy and plan, and  translates the strategy to support agencies such as advertising and capacity-building firms

marketing strategy
a process through which an organization plans to achieve its overall marketing goals

mass media
mode of communication that reaches a large audience (newspaper, TV, etc.)

media monitoring
use of a third-party agency to verify that TV or radio spots are being aired according to plan and billboards are maintained and functional

message recall
main messages remembered or taken away by target audience after exposure to communications campaign

product design allowing for upgrades over time as customer needs and budget evolve

monitoring and evaluation specialist
determines  information that needs to be monitored to gauge  program achievement at  output, intermediate, and outcome levels; assesses existing monitoring systems and develops and implements a  plan to augment  if required


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non-participative study of houses, facilities, and community spaces to inform sanitation and hygiene practices

open defecation (OD)
defecating outside, usually in a natural environment

open defecation free (ODF)
full sanitation coverage, with no open defecation occuring in the community

likely or achieved short-term and medium-term effects of an intervention’s outputs

products resulting from an intervention; can also include changes resulting from the intervention which are relevant to the achievement of outcomes


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performance monitoring
systematic  and periodic review of progress against outputs and intended outcomes; data is  used to refine  implementation strategy or activities

degree to which campaign materials can convince, influence, or persuade the target audience

a product or service is sold or obtained ,and the means and channels through which it is distributed.  Place is commonly referred to as distribution

an initial test of a survey instrument; conducted with a small sample of the target population to ensure that the participants understand the questions, that the skip patterns work, and that the interview is not too long, etc.

test campaign elements with sample of target audience; factors to consider include comprehension, attractiveness, acceptability, identification, and persuasion

monetary or nonmonetary cost to target audience for a product or  service

price elasticity
responsiveness of suppliers to changes in consumers' willingness to pay a certain amount for a product, and of consumers to changes in price

primary research data
data collected for the first time

a physical item or a service that meets a particular need within the target market; can also refer to a desired behavior*

develop and finalize campaign materials such as mass media for implementation

program manager
person  responsible for managing and implementing rural sanitation program; may be affiliated with a government organization, bilateral or multilateral donor or national non-governmental organizations

program manager
oversees day-to day-management and implementation of all program components

persuasive communications designed and delivered to inspire  target audience to action


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qualitative  research methods
approaches designed to gain an in-depth understanding of a given situation, behavior, attitudes, beliefs, etc.; includes focus groups,  in-depth interviews, key informant interviews, and informal assessments

approaches designed to sample a large cross-section of the population; typically use a structured and standardized research instrument; includes intercept surveys

quantitative research methods
approaches designed to sample a large cross-section of the population; typically use a structured and standardized research instrument; includes intercept surveys


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research objective
main reasons for doing a study; answers the question, "Why do this study?"

research purpose
main goals for a study; answers the questions, "How the results be used? What decisions will the results support?"

research question
specific questions the researcher seeks to answer

results framework
logic chain; shows how program goal or goals will be achieved; includes causal relationships and underlying assumptions.

rough edits
preliminary or unfinished version of a communication product


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a conceptual framework designed to help program managers and implementers analyze sanitation behaviors to design effective sanitation programs

sanitation ladder
tool for tracking improvement in sanitation coverage in step-wise increments from open defecation to a safe, hygienic, and enclosed latrine

sanitation marketing
application of social marketing practices to scale up the demand and supply for improved sanitation, particularly among the poor  

sanitation suppliers
providers of materials for building latrines, such as hardware stores, as well as sanitation-related services, such as pit emptying

secondary research data
data collected for another purpose at an earlier point in time; also known as secondary data or desk research

skip pattern
survey research instrument design in which  irrelevant or inappropriate questions are filtered and omitted

smart subsidies
subsidies that are targeted to a particular population

social drivers
pressures within a society, such as status, that motivate members of that society to act in a certain way

social marketing
process for creating, communicating, and delivering benefits that a target population desires in exchange for adopting behavior that profits society

social norms
implicit or explicit standards for behavior, set by and for member sof a social group;  includes descriptive norms, what is typically done in a setting, and injunctive norms, what is approved in a society

application of  uniform specifications, criteria, methods, processes, or practices  to product design, production, promotion, etc.

study protocol
reference document that includes the  study background,  purpose, research objectives and  questions, and  data collection methods;  should  discuss sample size and other technical details

amount of good or service producers are willing to supply when receiving a certain price


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technology options
parts of a product that are not visible; for example, what is below the ground (offset, lined pit), what is on the surface (a slab), and what is above the ground (the superstructure)

top-line results
preliminary results

training delivery
facilitation of training events based on a training design;  requires strong communication and mentoring skills and the ability to guide learning as a process

training design
process by which instructional interventions are planned using experiential and participatory learning approaches; includes  setting  training objectives, designing training sessions, and development of training materials; also known as training strategy

training management
logistic components to support a training; includes venue, budget, staffing, transportation, schedule, materials, etc.

training strategy
process by which instructional interventions are planned using experiential and participatory learning approaches; includes  setting  training objectives, designing training sessions, and development of training materials; also known as training design


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