In the Philippines, a Behavior Change Communication (BCC) campaign is targeting rural households without access to improved sanitation. In a country where 12% of the rural population (5.9 million people) still practice open defecation and 3% (1.5 million people) continue to use unimproved toilets, the BCC campaign is designed with a goal of increasing ownership of hygienic toilets. (SOURCE: JMP 2014)
The campaign was developed based on consultations with the Department of Health, interviews from local government representatives and decision makers, and insights from a consumer research study conducted in 2012 and supported jointly by WSP and UNICEF. The study was carried out among 1,200 rural households across five provinces in the Philippines.
The consumer research study showed that although the high cost of sanitation was consistently cited by poor respondents as the main barrier to adoption of improved toilets, a survey of households revealed ownership of other durable goods of a similar price range. Among those households without toilets, 43% owned mobile phones while 27% owned television sets.
The study also identified the desire for social acceptance as a motivation for behaviour change. Among the identified physical/emotional and social drivers to own toilets were the following: peace of mind afforded by not having to go out into the open, especially at night when evil creatures, snakes and other animals might be lurking; privacy for women; sense of pride that comes from owning a toilet; and confidence in being able to receive guests and offer them the use of a toilet when needed.
Based on insights from the consumer research findings study, the campaign materials also focus on the following drivers:
1. Safety from supernatural creatures, thieves, voyeurs and wild animals
2. Pride and enhanced social status (ability to invite guests at home during social events)
3. Convenience (proximity to house and unlimited use)
4. Progress (owning a toilet is a sign of household’s progress)
Local health workers, who are the direct link to community members, are also trained as sanitation advocates. Once trained, these local health workers are referred to as frontline workers/trainers.
“UNLI Asenso pag may Inidoro”
BCC materials were developed and pre-tested with target audiences. The final BCC campaign is titled “UNLI Asenso pag may Inidoro” ([There is] Unlimited Progress when one has a Toilet).
Stickers may be used by frontline workers as giveaways to households who have expressed the desire and interest to further "UNLI Asenso" (unlimited progress) by rejecting the practice of open defecation. The stickers, available in Filipino and Bisaya, are affixed on homes and serve as symbols of pride for households that agree to support the campaign.
Households who commit to take action are awarded wall calendars. The calendar, available in Filipino and Bisaya, symbolizes that better days can be expected with a toilet in the home, which are characterized by reminders on the key benefits of safety, pride, convenience, and progress.
Branded Promotional Items
Bags and shirts are provided to frontline workers and trainers to use as they engage audiences within the community. The bag and shirt also signify the frontline worker’s status as an official representative of the BCC campaign.
A Campaign Guidebook was developed for the frontline workers/trainers. It includes detailed explanations of the campaign concept, tools and how to use them, guidelines on conducting training workshops and activations, and a hand-gesture mnemonic for campaign recall. Packaged in the Guidebook are DVDs containing digital files of the other tools (Videos, sticker, calendar, shirt graphics and poster layouts) that frontline workers and trainers may use, print, or reproduce as needed.
An Advocacy Handbook was developed for local government officials and community leaders to inform them on the BCC campaign as well as let them know how they can be involved in the campaign by pushing for relevant legislation, initiating programs, and advocating for sanitation. The Handbook includes an overview of the state of open defecation in the Philippines, a guide on the local legislative process, as well as a list of concrete steps that LGU officials and community leaders can take to begin achieving the goal of zero open defecation in their respective areas.
Frontline workers are also provided 18” x 24” posters to put up in areas in the community where there is a large concentration of pedestrian traffic. Posters are available in two of the local languages (Bisaya and Filipino) and come in five designs —four that each highlight a benefit of owning a toilet (i.e. pride, safety, convenience, and progress) and a fifth omnibus design that lists all the benefits.
View the posters in Bisaya here.
Frontline workers/trainers are also provided with a DVD containing three short videos for use primarily during community events.
Video 1 - Shows scenes from rural municipalities around the country and how the practice of open defecation has become a barrier to “UNLI Asenso” (unlimited progress) from both a household and community level.
Video 2 - Shows how efforts from different sectors (local government, CLTS sessions, etc.) have begun to influence the communities to acquire toilets for the home. Representative members of the community also express support for the campaign and enjoin others to do the same.
Video 3- Shows that true progress is something that the entire community aspires for and that “UNLI Asenso” (unlimited progress) is possible if everyone stands up and does his or her part by acquiring a household toilet.
Video 4- A video was produced for the province of Sarangani in order to highlight the importance of having a toilet as well as introduce the UNLI Asenso campaign. The video features Sarangani Vice-Governor Jinkee Pacquiao who has adopted the UNLI Asenso campaign under her JINKEENATION initiative.
Video 5- Another video was also developed for local government units to show what LGUs can do to advocate for sanitation. The video, which focuses on policy development and implementation, highlights some of the efforts taken up in the provinces of Quezon and Sarangani.
A flipchart was developed for use by frontline workers/trainers to highlight to households relevant benefits of owning a toilet. A small format (for groups consisting of 1-5 people) or large format (for l groups consisting of 6-10 people) are available.
Small format flipcharts (with English instructions):
Large format flipcharts can be found here.