Promotion Mix: Lao PDR

About

Lao PDR has made significant efforts to increase rural access to adequate sanitation nationwide. However, nearly 40% of Lao PDR’s rural population still defecates in the open and only 56% have access to improved sanitation — one of the worst rates in Southeast Asia, second only to Cambodia. (SOURCE: JMP 2015).
 

The Lao government has challenged villages across the country to become open-defecation free (ODF). To help villages accomplish this, with the technical and financial support from WSP, the National Center for Environmental Health and Water Supply (Nam Saat), the Department of Hygiene and Health Promotion, and the Center for Information and Health Education (CIEH), under the Ministry of Health, developed a national behavior change communication (BCC) campaign and toolkits aimed at encouraging the construction/purchase of latrines among rural households. In order to fulfill the generated demand, Nam Saat worked with the WSP and Population Services International (PSI) to make latrines available in the southern provinces of the country.
 

The target audiences and desired behaviors for this campaign are as follows:

  • Households without a latrine cease open defecation and build or buy a latrine;
  • Households currently using unhygienic latrines upgrade to an improved latrine;
  • Village members commit to work towards becoming open defecation free village.

 

Findings from Formative Research

The important drivers that influence open defecation decisions are: comfort, convenience, shame, and safety:

  • Comfort: On rainy days, they have to find a shade (under a tree), and squat on wood to defecate because they don’t want to step on wet soil;
  • Convenience: Have to walk far to forest to find an OD place; especially challenging for women during menstruation (walk far — people don’t see their blood), during pregnancy (tired to walk, and walk very slowly) and after deliver baby (painful, walk to forest and have to leave baby alone at home);
  • Shame: Use latrine in crowded place such as cities, market because they don’t want others to see them — some of them said they use latrine in market because they can’t find forests;
  • Safety: Interrupted by mosquitoes, snakes, insects and animals (dogs / pigs); dark, afraid to trample on something.
     

Communication objectives
The tools developed as part of this strategy have been carefully designed to motivate individuals and families to 1) Consider the benefits and importance of constructing or buying a latrine; 2) Know how much a latrine costs and where to obtain materials and construction advice; and 3) Make a plan to finance a latrine and related actions that will make ownership rapid and realistic.
 

Key campaign messages:

  • Having a latrine provides your family with privacy, dignity, safety and better health.
  • Having latrine is more convenient for you and your children.
  • A latrine is less expensive than you think.
  • Invest in a latrine in the next two to three months.

COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN


 

The BCC campaign theme and tagline, “The Opportunity to Advance,” combines the private sector marketing influence — using the motivating factors for personal latrine ownership as detailed in the formative research (comfort, convenience, shame, safety) together with traditional health messages (family health, child development, community prosperity) to mobilize rural areas to improve their lives by gaining access to improved sanitation.
 

The BCC toolkit includes the following materials:
 

Campaign Logos

Example of the campaign logo in English and Lao:

 

  

PDF DownloadDownload

PDF DownloadDownload

Posters

Posters illustrate the campaign’s key visuals and messages, and are meant be hung during larger group meetings, at health centers, village notice boards, and other public areas where people gather.
 

  

Poster 1 (English): 
"Building a latrine means 
taking care of your family
and community"
 

PDF DownloadDownload

Poster 1 (Lao): 
"Building a latrine means
taking care of your family
and community"
 

PDF DownloadDownload

     

Poster 2 (English): 
“A prosperous family 
starts with having a latrine”
 

PDF DownloadDownload

Poster 2 (Lao): 
“A prosperous family 
starts with having a latrine”
 

PDF DownloadDownload

    

Poster 3 (English): 
“Having a latrine
provides peace of mind”
 

PDF DownloadDownload

 

Poster 3 (Lao): 
“Having a latrine 
provides peace of mind”
 

PDF DownloadDownload

 

Story Cards

The story cards help frontline workers facilitate group meetings and conduct household visits in their communities. Designed to entertain and generate discussion while highlighting the various benefits of owning a latrine, the stories target households without a latrine and the households using unhygienic latrines.
 

Story Card 1 — “A Model Family (Noy)”

Noy is a well-known, beautiful girl in her rural village. She is not only known for her beauty, but also for being a model student in her school. Noy’s curiosity and knowledge lead her to question why she and her family should face the shame and potential health dangers of defecating in the open. After discussing these issues with her parents, Noy’s father is inspired to take action and build a latrine. Soon, the well-known family is not only providing a model example through their daughter’s performance at school, but through their own healthy and civil actions at home.
 

PDF DownloadDownload: English / Lao

Story Card 2 — “Worth the Investment”

Meet Sister Keo, who owns a business selling papaya salad. Her young son, named Mouse, likes to hang around and visit with his mother’s customers, but he’s too young to find a place to go to the toilet by himself. Constantly having to take her son into the bushes, Sister Keo starts losing time and customers, and she soon realizes that investing in a latrine will save her time and customers.
 

PDF DownloadDownload: English / Lao

Story Card 3 — “Sister La’s Adventure”

During a dark and stormy night in the middle of the rainy season in southern Lao PDR, Sister La wakes as usual, needing to use the toilet.  But as her family still hasn’t built a latrine, sister La must venture out into the perils of the night, where she encounters mosquitoes, a snake, and even what she imagines is a ghost. The following day, when Sister La’s father hears what happened the night before, he finally makes the decision to build a latrine for the family. After the latrine is constructed, Sister La feels safer going out at night and her mother sleeps easily knowing her daughter will no longer have to go far, even during dark and stormy nights.
 

PDF DownloadDownload: English / Lao

 

 
 

Cards

Since the research found that most households overestimate the cost of latrines, the Pricing Discussion Card is designed to assist people to be aware of the actual prices of latrines and to think creatively about how to build or obtain a latrine quickly — and compare the price of latrine with other assets in their possession such as mobile, satellite or domestic animals.

 

PDF DownloadDownload (English) 
 

PDF DownloadDownload (Lao)   

The Take Action Card should be provided to members of households before completing a meeting or household visit. The card contains the picture of a low-cost latrine as well as instructions on who to contact to provide support for building and where to obtain supplies.
 

PDF DownloadDownload (English)

PDF DownloadDownload (Lao)

TRAINING DOCUMENTS

Master Trainer's Guide 
(includes an agenda and training evaluation form) 
       

The heart of this strategy relies on a cadre of Frontline Workers equipped with the knowledge and skills to disseminate the campaign’s critical messages and encourage individual, family and community-level actions. This guide is designed to help Trainers at national, provincial and district levels to bring the skills and tools to these Frontline Workers in the implementation of the campaign.            
 

  

PDF DownloadDownload (English) 

PDF DownloadDownload (Lao)

PowerPoint Presentation: Training for Frontline Workers           

The content of the training presentation for Frontline Workers replicates the Training of Trainers. The key difference is the field practicum, which uses real-life sessions in communities with households where Frontline Workers can practice the skills they have learned using the tools provided while still receiving coaching and feedback from trainers and peers. 
 

      

PDF DownloadDownload (English): 
PDF
/ PPT

PDF DownloadDownload (Lao): PDF

 

PowerPoint Presentation: Plan for Training of Trainers on BCC

This presentation is designed to help Trainers at national, provincial and district levels to bring the skills and tools to these Frontline Workers in the implementation of the campaign.
 

  

PDF DownloadDownload (English): 
PDF
 / PPT

PDF DownloadDownload (Lao): PDF

User's Guide (in Lao only)

The guide lists all elements included the BCC toolkit, with information on “how to use” and keep the steps brief, including tips and tricks.
 

 

PDF DownloadDownload (Lao)

 

ADVOCACY PACKAGE

The advocacy package includes a flyer, letter, envelope, and folder.
 

Flyer — Ending open defecation in Lao PDR: No time to lose

Increasing access to adequate sanitation facilities is fundamental to Lao PDR’s continued socio-economic growth, especially in terms of health and child nutrition. Lao PDR has no time to lose in efforts to end open defecation. This 4-page advocacy brief flyer is targeted at decision-making level. The flyer focuses on the issue, the consequences, and suggests the way forward.
 

 

PDF DownloadDownload (English; print version) 
 

PDF DownloadDownload (Lao; print version) 

 

 

Letter

Sample Advocacy Letter, in English and Lao:
 

 

PDF DownloadDownload (English)

PDF DownloadDownload (Lao)

Envelope

Designed envelope with logo and branding, in Lao:
 

 

PDF DownloadDownload (Design File in Illustrator PDF)

 

Folder

Designed folder with logo and branding, in Lao:
 

 

PDF DownloadDownload (Design File in Illustrator PDF)