Formative research is the foundation of any evidence-based sanitation marketing initiative. It involves collecting evidence on current practices, the factors that influence these practices, the current supply, and the types of sanitation products and services needed.
This module focuses on the three activities related to formative research:
Defining research objectives
Developing the research approach and design
Conducting data collection, analysis, and reporting
- Write good research objectives.
Tips for reviewing questionnaires
Develop a two-column table. In one column, list the indicators from the results framework as well as other research questions. In the second column, list the question numbers from the questionnaire that correspond to the indicators. This pinpoints extraneous questions and identifies indicators that remain unaddressed.
Possible secondary data sources
* Demographic and health surveys (DHS) * Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) * Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) reports issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) * UNICEF * Annual Poverty Indicators Surveys and family income and expenditure surveys * National statistical services * Data from chambers of commerce * Surveys, evaluations, or project reports from leading WASH or health sector partners * Academic institutions
- Possible research questions on behavioral determinants
Comparison of qualitative and quantitative methods.
Because qualitative and quantitative research employs different methods, their strengths as research tools vary. For example, qualitative research is helpful when exploring or asking "why" or "how" questions, while quantitative research is helpful when quantifying or confirming the ‘what’ of the current situation.
Sanitation Supply Chain Analysis in Rural and Small Towns in Uganda (WSP)
Research report assesses the rural and small town sanitation market in Uganda and the key elements of the supply chain.
Sanitation Supply Chain Assessment in Rural and Peri-Urban Cambodia (WSP)
Research report assesses the supply chains for sanitation facilities and services in rural and peri-urban areas of Cambodia.
Sanitary Latrine Demand of Rural and Urban Cambodia (WSP)
Research report assesses the demand for sanitary latrines in rural and urban areas of Cambodia.
Sanitation Market Assessment in India (WSP)
Research report analyzes the supply market for rural sanitation in Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, within the context of current state-level sanitation programs.
Sanitation Demand and Supply Market Research Findings—Indonesia (WSP)
Research report summarizes market research findings in East Java.
Qualitative Research on Sanitation Demand and Supply-Indonesia (WSP)
Research report summarizes qualitative market research findings in East Java.
Quantitative Research on Sanitation Demand and Supply-Indonesia (WSP)
Research report summarizes quantitative market research findings in East Java.
Situation Assessment of Sanitation Market-Indonesia (WSP)
Research report assesses the factors incfuencing sanitation markets in East Java, including demand, supply, and the enabling environment.
Sanitation Demand and Supply—Tanzania (WSP)
Research report assesses sanitation demand and supply; based on interviews with 1,000 households and over 240 sanitation providers in selected districts in Tanzania.
Rural Situation Assessment of Sanitation Market-Tanzania (WSP)
Research report assesses sanitation demand and supply in rural Tanzania; based on interviews with 1,000 households and over 240 sanitation providers in selected districts.
Questionnaire to Research Household Sanitation Demand in Indonesia (WSP)
Sample questionnaire used to survey rural households on sanitation knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and preferences.
Questionnaire to Research Household Sanitation Demand in Tanzania (WSP)
Sample questionnaire used to survey rural households on sanitation knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and preferences.
Instrument to Research Sanitation Supply in Tanzania (WSP)
Sample research instrument developed to gather household/consumer sanitation supply data.