October 2010 Improving access to water supply and sanitation services for the poor
CONTENTS
+ WSP News
bulletAfrica
bulletEast Asia and the Pacific
bulletGlobal
bulletLatin America and the
Caribbean
bulletSouth Asia
+ Publications & Learning Resources
+ Events Calendar
+ In Other News
Drinking Water Security in Water Stressed Areas

“The sacred Ganga is the life source for (tens of millions) of Indians. It is our duty to keep the river clean. We have constituted the National Ganga Authority in which the Central and State Governments will jointly work towards this end. The cooperation of the public is also needed in this effort. Our natural resources are limited. We must use them more efficiently. We need a new culture of energy conservation. We also need to prevent the misuse of water. We will pay more attention to programs for water collection and storage. “Save Water” should be one of our national slogans.”

- Excerpt from Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh’s Independence Day address in New Delhi on August 15, 2010.

 

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+ WSP NEWS
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AFRICA
Benin Leaps Forward in Planning through Inventory and Mapping of Water Points
Kenya Explores Role of Gender in Providing Better Water Services
Rwanda Addresses Good Governance in Sanitation and Water
EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
Community-Based Water Organizations Access Financing
Government, News Media, World Bank/WSP Collaborate to Seize Opportunities in Evidence-Based Advocacy
Lao Villages Declared Open Defecation-Free
GLOBAL
A source of death and life: by WSP Manager Jae So
Sanitation and Water Coverage in Sub Saharan Africa Improved, Uneven: WSP Delivers Knowledge at World Water Week
Water Utilities Weather Triple Crisis Impact - New service benchmarks to improve water and sewerage services for all
New Ways to Share Knowledge Lauded by USAID
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
10 years of lessons and trends in Rural Water & Sanitation
No Risk Management Means Significant Costs in the Water and Sanitation Sector
SOUTH ASIA
Bangladesh Revises Implementation Plan for Arsenic Mitigation
New Benchmarking and Sanitation Award Creates Healthy Competition among Indian Cities
Measuring and Managing Water Resources in Water Constrained Countries like India
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+ PUBLICATIONS & LEARNING RESOURCES
VIDEOS
 
Marketing Sanitation in Rural East Java
Towards Clean Cities: Addressing Sanitation in Urban India (short version)
Java Under Siege
WSP collaborates with Indonesia’s leading private television station RCTI to produce three TV clips focusing on water and sanitation problems facing the densely-populated Java Island. The clips were aired in RCTI news programs with viewers totaling 16 million.
Contact: Yosa Yuliarsa at wspeap@worldbank.org
 
PUBLICATIONS
Social Factors Impacting Use of EcoSan in Rural Indonesia
  This Learning Note elaborates on findings of a study aiming to identify social, religious, cultural, and gender-related factors that influence attitudes of people in rural areas towards urine and excreta-based fertilizers in predominantly Muslim Indonesia. The study found that demand for organic fertilizer exists across religions and regions, and that over 80 percent of both Muslims and Christians are willing to consume products grown using EcoSan compost.
EcoSan in Rural Indonesia.pdf
Senegal: A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey
  Since its 2006 inception, WSP's Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project has emphasized emergent learning and performance monitoring to allow for evidence-based, mid-course adjustments. This Learning Note profiles the behavior change component of the project, with a focus on how it was designed, implemented, and monitored in Senegal. Challenges and lessons learned are included to assist program managers as they make decisions to develop and manage a handwashing promotion initiative.
Senegal handwashing behavior.pdf
Output-Based Aid for Sustainable Sanitation
  Results-based financing (RBF) has emerged as an important new way of financing public services in general and basic services in particular. One type of RBF known as output-based aid (OBA) tends to be used to target subsidies for poor customers by providing service providers the incentives to serve areas of greatest need. Unfortunately, experience with OBA in sanitation is limited. One of the motivations for this paper is to consider why this is the case. The objective of this study is to investigate how output-based aid (OBA) could be used to increase sustainable access to sanitation services. This study arose from the observation that, even though OBA has gradually emerged as an important way to finance access to basic services, experience with OBA-type financing in the sanitation sector has remained limited, with mixed results compared to other sectors.
OBA_Sanitation_Framework.pdf
Introducing FOAM: A Framework to Analyze Handwashing Behaviors to Design Effective Handwashing Programs
  In November 2006, WSP began implementing a handwashing behavior change program, the Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project, across four countries. In response to the need for a common conceptual framework, WSP spearheaded the development of the FOAM framework, guided by Population Services International's PERForM framework. FOAM (Focus on Opportunity, Ability, and Motivation), developed at a March 2007 workshop in Hanoi, Vietnam, is based on behavioral determinants that either promote or constrain behavior change. FOAM can be used by program managers implementing handwashing behavior change initiatives, and is easily adaptable to a variety of socioeconomic settings.
WSP_IntroducingFOAM_HWWS.pdf | Learn more
Peru: A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey
  WSP’s Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project is focused on learning how to apply innovative promotional approaches to behavior change to generate widespread and sustained improvements in handwashing with soap at scale among women and children. This Learning Note discusses the behavior change component of the project, with a focus on how it was designed, implemented, and monitored in Peru. Challenges and lessons learned are included to assist program managers as they make decisions to develop and manage a handwashing promotion initiative.
WSP_PeruBehaviorChange_HWWS.pdf
Scaling Up Handwashing Behavior: Findings from the Impact Evaluation Baseline Survey in Peru
  WSP’s Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project is testing approaches to learn what works to create and sustain handwashing with soap behavior change. To establish the causal effect of project interventions on specific health and welfare measures, the project is conducting impact evaluation studies using a randomized-controlled experimental design. This report shares baseline results from research conducted in 3,526 households in the project area in Peru.
WSP_PeruBaselineStudy_HWWS.pdf | Learn more
Involving Men in Handwashing Behavior Change Interventions in Senegal
  In Senegal, women play a central role in caring for the family and women’s hygiene behaviors are strongly correlated to reducing or transmitting fecal contamination within the household. However, as heads of household, men allocate financial resources for household items such as soap. Thus, while the Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project in Senegal initially focused on women as the target audience for project implementation, the project team soon realized they should also target men. The steps taken to target both women and men, along with key learnings, are discussed.
WSP_InvolvingMen_HWWS.pdf
Rapport d’étude comparative régional sur la solvabilité des services d’utilités publics
  This French publication was translated from an earlier produced English version titled: African Water Utilities: Regional Comparative Utility Creditworthiness Assessment Report. The report gives a perspective of key actions taken by water utilities to facilitate the process of mobilizing additional funding for developing the water sector. The credit ratings were conducted to provide a better understanding of the credit worthiness of water utilities, and the analysis is based on data sourced from seven utilities in five African countries: Burkina Faso, Kenya, Senegal, Tunisia, and Uganda.
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+ EVENTS CALENDAR
ADB Water Event: Water Crisis and Choices
October 11 - 15th, 2010 Manila, Philippines
WASH in Schools – Raising Clean Hands
Speakers include US Undersecretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs Maria Otero, Carol Bellamy of the Education for All Fast Track Initiative, UNICEF’s Clarissa Brocklehurst, AED’s Jack Downey, and the Coca-Cola Company’s Jeff Seabright
October 13, 2010 AED, 1506 21st St NW, Suite 200 Washington, DC
Global Handwashing Day
October 15, 2010
IRC Symposium 2010: Pumps, Pipes and Promises
November 16 - 18th 2010 The Hague, The Netherlands
3rd Africa Water Week
November 22 - 26th, 2010 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
United Nations Climate Change Conference
November 29 - December 10th 2010 Cancun, Mexico
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+ IN OTHER NEWS

News from our partners

Doctor Water Changes Lives in Andhra Pradesh
For years, in the heart of rural Andhra Pradesh, there were no alternatives to contaminated pond water. Then, two years ago, the Naandi Foundation, an NGO with a strong presence in the state, approached the Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid (GPOBA) with a proposal to set up purification plants with the technical assistance of Water Health International (WHI). Capitalizing on the immense respect that doctors command in rural communities, Naandi created the Dr. Water brand to give the water purification plants funded by GPOBA an identity. Today, for more than 16,000 families across 25 villages, Dr. Water is the water that keeps them free from disease resulting in a huge improvement in their quality of life
Doctor Water Changes Lives in Andhra Pradesh

Foundation Now Accepting Proposals for Latest Round of Grand Challenges Explorations
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation today announced the opening of Round 6 of Grand Challenges Explorations, a $100 million grant initiative to encourage bold and unconventional global health solutions. Proposals are being accepted until November 2, 2010. Grand Challenges Explorations offers researchers the chance to win US$100,000 grants to foster innovative projects that could transform health in developing countries. The initiative focuses on areas where creative, unorthodox thinking is most urgently needed.

For this round, applicants are asked to focus their proposals on these five topic areas:

  • Design New Approaches to Cure HIV Infection; Create the Next Generation of Sanitation Technologies;
  • Create Low-Cost Cell Phone-Based Applications for Priority Global Health Conditions;
  • Create New Technologies for the Health of Mothers and Newborns;
  • The Poliovirus Endgame: Create Ways to Accelerate, Sustain and Monitor Eradication.
The topic focusing on sanitation technologies highlights the integrated approach the foundation is taking toward health in developing countries. Improved sanitation is essential to reducing water-borne illnesses and has profound economic, educational, and social benefits.

“Water, sanitation, and hygiene are critical to reducing the burden of water-borne diseases like polio and rotavirus,” said Dr. Tachi Yamada, president of the Global Health Program at the Gates Foundation. “We hope the Grand Challenges Explorations program will unearth new, sustainable approaches to sanitation that could save the lives of thousands of children who die from diarrheal diseases each year.”

Proposals are being accepted online at www.grandchallenges.org/explorations. The foundation and an independent group of reviewers will select the most innovative proposals, and grants will be awarded within approximately four months from the proposal submission deadline. Initial grants will be $100,000 each. Projects showing success will have the opportunity to receive additional funding up to $1 million. The grants from Round 5 will be announced in October 2010.
www.grandchallenges.org/explorations

Call for Nominations – 3rd Annual National Urban Water Awards (NUWA) 2010
The National Urban Water Awards (NUWA) are instituted by the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD), Government of India, in association with the Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI) and GTZ to recognize and inspire excellence in urban water management. NUWA honors public and government institutions and recognizes the role of all stakeholders associated with service delivery improvement in urban areas.

The Awards are open to Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), Water Utilities/Boards, Non-governmental organizations, community-based organizations, private sector, bilateral and multilateral agencies in collaboration with ULBs/Water Utilities/Boards in the categories of (i) technical innovation (ii) financial reform (iii) services to the poor (iv) citizen services and governance (v) public-private partnerships (vi) urban sanitation and (vii) communication strategy and awareness generation.

Brochure and entry form is available at www.waterawards.in. For further details, cities can contact Shri Vaibhav Purandare, ASCI (Ph: 040 – 66533022, Email: vaibhav@asci.org.in)
www.waterawards.in

Water For People and SWASH+ Program Expand to 150 More Central American Schools
Water For People, a US-based development organization, announced today that with new funds from the Inter-American Development Bank and The Coca-Cola Foundation, they and their partners will expand the successful SWASH+ (School Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Education Plus Community Impact) program. More than 15,000 students at 150 schools in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua will soon benefit from safe drinking water, restroom facilities, and improved hygiene education.
Water For People and SWASH+ Program

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+ WSP NEWS - CONTINUED
AFRICA
Benin Leaps Forward in Planning through Inventory and Mapping of Water Points

A recently completed pilot water point inventory and mapping exercise in Benin facilitated the collection of data that will be used to form the basis for water supply planning, and act as a budgeting tool to meet the needs of the rural population. The data will be used by the relevant government authorities in the water sector for budget allocation purposes.

Prior to conducting the exercise, government personnel received training in data recording system techniques, such as: inventories synthesis (access/water points infrastructure); safe drinking water access balance by locality; specific worksheets (hands pumps, small town water piped systems, and locality); and concise thematic mapping of locality access balance.

With the Benin government having adopted the methodological approach and decentralized data updating system, donors expressed enthusiasm and commitment to support the replication of this exercise in other regions in the country. WSP supported this pilot exercise as well as the creation of a WATSAN website, where it will soon avail information on the mapping and data collected during the inventory exercise.
Contact: Sylvain Adokpo Migan at wspaf@worldbank.org

Kenya Explores Role of Gender in Providing Better Water Services

WSP in collaboration with the World Bank and the Ministry of Water and Irrigation in Kenya recently provided training to a team of people drawn from different water sector institutions focusing on gender. During the three-day session held in Mombasa, participants revised and tested tools to capture information on gender, sanitation, and water from people living in rural areas.

The gender focal point personnel will collect data that will be used in a World Bank project to provide information on the impact of gender in various sectors, including water and sanitation. As a follow-up to the training, gender mainstreaming activities are taking place within the Water Services Regulatory Board; the Water Services Trust Fund; the Ministry of Water and Irrigation; eight Water Services Boards responsible for service delivery; and institutions that are responsible for water resource management and irrigation.

The next phase of the project will look into ways of ensuring that the trained focal points acquire practical experiences from other regions like Asia and Latin America, Northern and Southern Africa, and the World Bank South – South Learning Trust Fund. The exposure will enable these parties to learn more on how gender has been mainstreamed at the policy level in irrigation, rural and urban water services, and sanitation.
Contact: Rosemary Rop at wspaf@worldbank.org

Rwanda Addresses Good Governance in Sanitation and Water

WSP in partnership with the Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Authority (RURA) and the water governance facility of the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) recently convened a workshop to deliberate on ways of promoting good governance in the water sector in line with international good practice and of linking governance initiatives to sector policy dialogue. Some notable outputs of the workshop were; the improvement of stakeholders’ capacity on tools required to promote accountability and good governance; the formation of a good governance working group; and the appointment of a multi stakeholder steering committee, among others.

The event, which took place earlier this year was attended by more than 30 stakeholders from Ministries associated with water and infrastructure, development partners, water utilities, consumer associations, civil society, anti-corruption and integrity institutions, the national regulator, and organizations from the private sector.
Contact: Mbaye Seye at wsp@worldbank.org

EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

Community-Based Water Organizations Access Financing

Thirty community-based organizations (CBOs) dealing with water supply in six districts in Indonesia’s East and West Java provinces have been selected to receive technical assistance in order to obtain financing for business development and expansion. The micro financing program, Second Generation Project, is channeled through a national commercial bank, Bank BNI, under the Kredit Usaha Rakyat - a national program providing non-collateral loans for community and small scale enterprises. The technical assistance will be provided by WSP in collaboration with the AusAID-funded Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (INDII), Ministry of Public Works, and Directorate of Public Private Partnership Development of the National Development Planning Agency. AusAID will also provide performance-based grants to CBOs that manage to meet agreed upon performance criteria such as increased connections and efficient monthly collection rates. The 30 CBOs were selected from 48 applicants following a series of project roadshows.
Contact: Jemima Sy, Deviariandy Setiawan at wspeap@worldbank.org
Government, News Media, World Bank/WSP Collaborate to Seize Opportunities in Evidence-Based Advocacy

Government representatives, lawmakers, and news producers in Indonesia, Lao PDR, and the Philippines, collaborated with World Bank and WSP staff to develop action plans to promote water and sanitation issues among key decision-makers through evidence and knowledge. Communications needs assessment and strategic planning exercises with WSP counterparts resulted in a) mapping of issues, challenges, and trends in water, sanitation, and sector advocacy; b) advocacy targets for 2015; and 3) agreement on actors and roles towards helping achieve the targets. “We were very happy to see people from different water and sanitation-related professions and motivations work together,” said WSP Communications Officer for East Asia and the Pacific Yosa Yuliarsa. “A journalist for, say, the leading news daily in the Philippines usually meets with Government representatives to cover official stories, while those in Government can often be very cautious or suspicious of the news media. To have them working together to understand the other’s motivations, especially around such a critical topic, is inspiring.”

The meeting also generated interest of top tier journalists from those countries in water and sanitation, some having been unaware of the life- and economic costs of not having access. Several news stories were sparked from the materials shared at the event, and picked up by another 31 news outlets in four regions. “While this points to a continued lack of awareness among decision-makers of the basic facts about the toll of poor water and sanitation, the keen interest displayed by the media also gives a great deal of hope for improvements to come,” said WSP Communications Officer Christopher Walsh.
Contact: Yosa Yuliarsa at wspeap@worldbank.org

Lao Villages Declared Open Defecation-Free

Five villages in Lao PDR have been declared open defecation-free (ODF) as of June 2010, following the first ever ODF declaration in Lao in mid-May. At the first declaration in Kandone Village in Sekong Province on May 18, Sekong Provincial Vice-Governor Phonethep Khieolaphet, Vice-Minister of Health Bounkuang Phichit, and WSP Regional Team Leader for East Asia and the Pacific Almud Weitz together cut a ribbon to celebrate the event, which resulted from piloting community-led total sanitation (CLTS) in six villages of the Champasak and Sekong provinces. The pilot project was led by district officers of the National Centre for Environmental Health and Water Supply (Nam Saat), under the Department of Hygiene of the Ministry of Health with technical support from WSP.

As a community-driven approach to improve sanitation behavior among villages in developing countries, CLTS represents a strategic shift in focus from supporting toilet construction for individual households to one that seeks to create ODF villages through behavioral changes in the entire community. “CLTS is a simple but effective strategy to empower communities in taking a decisive step towards achieving something on their own to be proud of,” said Weitz. “It motivates communities to take collective action in partnership with local governments, development organizations, and civil society organizations ... We have seen this work in so many different settings in East Asia by now, with villagers really becoming proud citizens - and government officials realizing that a completely different approach in which they are more facilitators than providers, can achieve faster and longer-lasting results than they had ever imagined,” she added.

Lao PDR has made good progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of 54 percent access to improved sanitation. However, this was from a very low baseline of just 11 percent in 1990, and still leaves some 3 million people without a toilet in a country with a total population of just 6.2 million. In rural areas, where many families are poor, coverage is only 38 percent, and as little as 16 percent in locations that have no road access. A WSP-funded study in 2006, the Economics of Sanitation Initiative, found that Lao PDR loses an estimated US$193 million each year due to poor sanitation and hygiene, and a recently conducted additional Sanitation and Hygiene Finance Study concluded that MDG achievement would require at least a doubling, if not tripling, of annual expenditures for sanitation and hygiene if the MDG target is to be reached by 2015.
Contact: Almud Weitz, Viengsamay Vongkhamsao at wspeap@worldbank.org

GLOBAL

A source of death and life: by WSP Manager Jae So

The paramount water challenge of development agencies has for decades been that of freeing up women and kids from the endless grind of fetching water. However more and more people are gaining access to clean water. Since 1990, 1.6 billion have gained access to safe water. The world will likely even reach the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) set in 2015 to halve the number of people without access to clean water, according to the United Nations.

This is no small feat, and the world should take a moment to celebrate this success, and learn from challenges encountered along the way so that we continue beyond 2015 until everyone can access clean water and sanitation. The full text of this op-ed can be found at http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/opinion/sink-or-swim-on-access-to-safe-water/395269 . In addition to the Jakarta Globe (Indonesia), the article also appeared in the Express Tribune (Pakistan) and the Vientiane Times (Lao PDR). A modified version is also slated to run in the Chicago Tribune (US).
Contact: Christopher Walsh at wsp@worldbank.org

Sanitation and Water Coverage in Sub Saharan Africa Improved, Uneven: WSP Delivers Knowledge at World Water Week

World Water Week in Stockholm in September brought together researchers, students, policy makers, and other national and international stakeholders to present and share new findings on hygiene, sanitation, and water. WSP delivered new knowledge to participants in the context of progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Specifically, WSP presented evidence supporting the following:

  • Lack of sanitation investments generates important economic losses in sectors that are not obviously linked. For example, in India, tourism-related losses amount to US$266 million per year.
  • Domestic Private Sector can increase its scale by tackling: non market constraints: policies, access to finance, etc.; and market constraints: developing business models that deliver the services that the poor can pay
  • Water and sanitation coverage across Sub Saharan Africa has improved but is uneven and needs to be accelerated by addressing disparities
  • Marketing can improve sanitation and can help to scale up nationally. Challenges include national monitoring; determining most cost-effective promotional activities; moving up the supply chain and engaging suppliers of materials (cement, hardware) rather than focusing only on local masons.
  • Key success factors for scaling-up rural sanitation are a combination of an efficient execution of: community led programs; behavior change communications; sanitation marketing; strong partnerships
  • Output-based Aid could improve the targeting and efficiency of subsidy delivery; as well as act as a lever for broader sanitation sector reforms
For more information on WSP at Water Week, click here.

Contact: Yehude Simon at wsplac@worldbank.org, Christopher Walsh at wsp@worldbank.org
Water Utilities Weather Triple Crisis Impact - New service benchmarks to improve water and sewerage services for all

Despite global food, fuel, and economic crises, water utilities in developing countries are becoming more self reliant and sustainable, according to a new report by the World Bank and the World Bank-administered Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). The International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET) Blue Book is the first published benchmarking of data from 3,000 utilities in more than 100 countries that helps water utilities and governments improve services for all, including the poor.

“Up until the impacts of the fuel crisis were felt, the ability of utilities to cover at least their basic operation and maintenance costs was improving,” said World Bank Lead Water and Sanitation Specialist and coauthor Caroline van den Berg. “Indicators of staff productivity and revenue collection periods also showed improvements. Service tariffs are also on the rise, indicating an improved ability to recover costs.”

The report also showed that utilities demonstrating openness and transparency by participating in the voluntary data collection by IBNET made significant progress towards sustainability over time.

“The Blue Book summarizes more than a decade effort of the World Bank and WSP to set and encourage the use of performance assessment standards for water utilities in developing countries,” said WSP Senior Water and Sanitation Specialist and coauthor Alexander Danilenko.

The report found that only a few utilities worldwide are, or were able to extend their coverage without public investments. “Although utilities are becoming more sustainable, their ability to extend new water and sewerage coverage tends to be dictated more by availability of public funding than internal cash generation in utilities,” Danilenko continued.

A hard copy, conference edition of the report was released in September at Stockholm’s World Water Week, with the final report to be released globally later this year.
Contact: Alexander Danilenko at wsp@worldbank.org

New Ways to Share Knowledge Lauded by USAID

With more people using digital media to process new information, the hygiene, sanitation, and water sector increasingly looks to technology to help globally disseminate lessons from development interventions in a given village, region, or country. USAID this week recognized WSP and its partners’ roles in such knowledge-sharing by awarding 1st and 4th prizes in the USAID Environmental Health Sanitation Video Contest to two WSP videos depicting sanitation interventions in Cambodia and Indonesia.

The Sanitation Marketing Project was launched in Cambodia in early October 2009, aiming to have over 10,000 toilets installed by households in rural villages over a period of 18 months through market force and demand creation activities. Unlike conventional approaches to sanitation improvement, which usually provide hardware subsidies to households and overlook the market as a driving force to sustainable sanitation, the current approach depicted in Making It Easy: Sanitation Marketing in Cambodia focuses on market-based solutions and the sustained behavior change of sanitation practice within communities.

Meanwhile, in a country where rural sanitation access rates remained stagnant at under 40 percent for recent decades, sanitation has suddenly become a profitable, fast growing business. Marketing Sanitation in Rural East Java features small-scale sanitation entrepreneurs serving households in Indonesia's East Java province, one of the most densely populated places on earth (38 million people).

The winning videos were selected among 30 entries to be featured on Sanitation Updates, a news feed on sanitation maintained by the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre and by USAID’s Environmental Health knowledge management activity and the Hygiene Improvement Project.
Contact: Yosa Yuliarsa at wspeap@worldbank.org, Christopher Walsh at wsp@worldbank.org

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

10 years of lessons and trends in Rural Water & Sanitation

Strengthening partnerships and promoting south-south learning were highlighted at a recent event in Cusco, Peru as two key challenges to scale up successful rural experiences to benefit a larger number of poor people. The event gathered representatives from 13 Latin American countries and specialists of the World Bank Group to analyze the most significant experiences in rural water and sanitation over the last 10 years.

The meeting gave a unique opportunity to learn about best practices in the region identifying key successful aspects such as the need to pay for services: the State  Water Commission  of Guanajuato in Mexico (CEAG) ; improving the management model:  Drinking water and sanitation program for rural communities and small municipalities in Ecuador (PRAGUAS); and building partnerships: National Servce for Enviromental Sanitation in Paraguay (SENASA). Participants also visited the rural community of Parpacalla, which has experienced an significant human and economic development in recent years due to a water and sanitation sub national program.

Contact: Oscar Castillo at wsplac@worldbank.org
No Risk Management Means Significant Costs in the Water and Sanitation Sector

A recent study carried out by WSP shows that well maintained and seismic-proof built systems would have saved up to 27 times the cost of infrastructure rehabilitation in Peru after the 2007 earthquake. Moreover, the opportunity cost associated with rehabilitation is equivalent to the budget needed for increasing by 7 percent the coverage of water connections and by 9 percent that of sewage connections, which would have benefited 161,000 poor inhabitants in the urban area.

The study was presented in the city of Pisco, one of the localities most affected by the earthquake. Authorities and specialists discussed why it is important to look at risk management not as an expensive cost, but as a priority investment. Jorge Guibo, representative from the Ministry of Finance, explained how some government officials still think that risk management makes projects too expensive, “with this study we will give them a technical framework to change this misconception.” The report is due to be released later this month.

In addition to this research, WSP is also providing to the water and sanitation sector an important set of tools aimed at integrating Risk Management as a pro-poor approach to better cope with natural hazards, including those related to climate change.
Contact: Gustavo Perochena at wsplac@worldbank.org

SOUTH ASIA
Bangladesh Revises Implementation Plan for Arsenic Mitigation

In Bangladesh, 650,000 people are now consuming water that is safe from arsenic contamination. This has been achieved through the local government-led replication of a pay-for-use source testing, marking, and switching program covering 78,000 improved water sources.

In a country where the number of improved water sources (ground water) is over half the number of households in arsenic-affected areas, source switching is the most viable, yet neglected option by all stakeholders except the households themselves. Interestingly, this is only viable when people are sure that they are switching to a safer source. This means that local government needs to ensure 100 percent testing and marking of sources, while source owners need to pay for tests to build their confidence in the quality of the screening process.

This practice was developed in Chowgacha upazila by a Japan International Cooperation Agency and Government of Bangladesh project. It has subsequently been replicated by more than 40 union parishads through the Horizontal Learning Program in the upazilas (sub-districts of roughly 70,000 households) of Chapai Nawabganj Sadar, Tarash, Shyamnagar, Meherpur Sadar and Rajarhat.

Learnings from this practice have resulted in local, government-led arsenic screening being included in the revised Implementation Plan for Arsenic Mitigation (IPAM) 2009. WSP provided technical support to the revision of IPAM in collaboration with other sector partners.

In the revised IPAM, sector specific interventions were designed to focus on issues such as drinking water, health, agriculture, and water resources, making way for easier implementation.
Contact: Abdul Motaleb at wspsa@worldbank.org

New Benchmarking and Sanitation Award Creates Healthy Competition among Indian Cities

Findings of a survey commissioned by the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD), which rate Indian cities on safe sanitation practices, have rendered some stark revelations. None of the 423 Class-I cities (with a population of more than 100,000) in the country is “healthy and clean” in terms of various sanitation parameters according to the survey. Two out of five cities were found to be “needing immediate remedial action” in sanitation facilities and more than half need “considerable improvement.”

Only four cities were found to be in the category of “recovering” in the area of sanitation facilities. These are Chandigarh, followed by Mysore, Surat, and New Delhi Municipal Corporation administered area. Churu in Rajasthan is at the bottom of the list.

The study covered 423 cities, divided into five zones, representing 72 percent of India’s urban population. The rankings were based on 19 sanitation parameters such as access to community toilets, safe management of human excreta, and solid waste collection and treatment.

Rating of cities is an initiative of MoUD and supports the implementation of the National Urban Sanitation Policy launched in 2008. The ratings aim to trigger healthy competition among cities as each strives to earn the title of Nirmal Shahar (exemplary city) on a set of ratings that determine its sanitation and healthy living status. WSP supported MoUD in developing the policy, methodology, and framework for the rating of cities.

The rating is funded by the Government of India and will be scaled-up to cover all 5161 urban centers. The rating and rewards scheme is expected to serve as an effective benchmark to monitor progress, and allow for healthy competition and thorough introspection around the goals of NUSP.
Contact: Vivek Raman at wspsa@worldbank.org

Measuring and Managing Water Resources in Water Constrained Countries like India

India’s National Rural Drinking Water Program, founded on the principle of ensuring drinking water security for all, mandates that enough suitable water be available for drinking, cooking, and domestic use throughout the year. Action needed towards implementing the program include village drinking water security-planning to suit agro-climatic conditions, bulk and domestic metering in villages, and awareness-generation on water resource management.

These recommendations emerged at the end of an international workshop on achieving drinking water security in water-stressed and quality affected areas. The workshop was organized by the Department of Drinking Water Supply (DDWS), Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India in collaboration with WSP and the World Bank in May. Experts shared experiences and techniques on managing drinking water security and resolving legal, policy, financial, institutional, and technical challenges.

International examples demonstrated management of demand and supply, especially with regard to metering and monitoring, and how service standards are followed for rural and urban communities. In South Africa, the constitution provides for water as a basic right with up to 25 Liters Per Capita per Day (LPCD) free and beyond that on payment. Australia illustrated the five E’s of demand management - engineering, economics, enforcement, education, and encouragement.

Israel’s innovations included creating new water through use of modern technologies (desalination plants and water reuse). Israel’s National Water Law, 1959, treats water as a public resource while being managed by the government as trustee.

Indian experiences highlighted community-based approaches in managing drinking water security. Interventions included large-scale water harvesting; restoring dead rivers/ ponds; enhancing ground water tables in water-stressed areas in Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu; building capacity of communities to measure water resources in Andhra Pradesh; and using domestic metering and tariffs for managing demand and supply in Karnataka.

Dr. C.P. Joshi, Minister for Rural Development, Government of India, emphasized the need for solutions appropriate for Indian villages. “Village councils should be empowered and capacitated to measure and manage water resources, ultimately leading to villagers’ drinking water security for all.”
Contact: Jonnalagadda V. Raman Murty at wspsa@worldbank.org

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