October 2009 Improving access to water supply and sanitation services for the poor
CONTENTS
+ WSP News
bulletAfrica
bulletEast Asia and Pacific
bulletLatin America and the
Caribbean
bulletSouth Asia
+ Publications & Learning Resources
+ Events Calendar
+ In Other News
Options for Sanitation Improvement
Given the right business strategy and environment, even latrines can sell like hot cakes. Sumadi, a trained mason in Indonesia, has transformed from a public health official in a sub-district office into an entrepreneur installing over 2,000 latrines in villages previously practicing open defecation.

He started off his latrine business in 2001 in a village where only four out of 267 households had improved latrine facilities, with most villagers defecating in a river. Market response was initially lackluster until Sumadi attended a series of supply and promotion workshops in 2008. He learned the value of increasing demand and incorporating market research findings generated from the WSP-support Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing project in East Java. Taking these lessons on board, Sumadi rethought his business strategy.

Sumadi devised three differently priced, improved sanitation options of progressive quality and utility, using locally available materials. He would use his one-page Informed Choice Catalogue to explains the pros, cons, and costing of each option to the customers. He also would broker installment payment arrangement between consumers and suppliers. Since implementing his new business plan, Sumadi has become increasingly busy by the unprecedented demand he has generated by offering consumers both information and choice. Sumadi's home-grown marketing wisdom is applicable for all in the sanitation sector: "Instead of advising communities that they can become open defecation free by covering their latrine pits with a plank of wood, which would soon get eaten by termites, it is more useful to offer them choices for more permanent and healthier latrines. My customers don't really want pits. What they really want is safe sanitation, but at prices and payment arrangements that they can afford. I try to meet those expectations."

Contact: Almud Weitz at wspeap@worldbank.org
 
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+ WSP NEWS
AFRICA
Africa to Recognize Sanitation and Hygiene Achievers
Water Sector in Kenya Adopts Revised Transfer Plan
New Financing Options for Rural Water Systems in Rwanda
Africa Reassesses Progress on Millennium Development Goals
EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
Promoting Handwashing to Prevent Bird Flu in Indonesia
First Law to Drive Water Sector Reform Passed in Lao PDR
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
Over 176,000 Rural Nicaraguans to Receive Better Water Supply and Sanitation
Exploiting the Full Potential of Rainwater Harvesting in Nicaragua
Strengthening Financial Capacity of the Central American Water Sector
Managing Risks in Peru
Two-way Learning Hub on Hygiene
SOUTH ASIA
Moving Beyond Open Defecation Free Sanitation in Pakistan
Microfinance Agencies Enable Entrepreneurs in Bangladesh to Provide More Sanitation Technology Options
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+ PUBLICATIONS & LEARNING RESOURCES
AFRICA
Water Utilities in Africa: Case Studies of Transformation and Market Access
How Can Reforming African Water Utilities Tap Local Financial Markets?
Water Operators Partnerships: Africa Utility Performance Assessment
EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
Learning at Scale - Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing Project: Indonesia Country Update June 2009
Analysis of 35 Water Districts; Prospects and Pitfalls in Integrated Water Services in the Philippines
IDE Sanitation Marketing Pilot Project
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
Handwashing Initiative Monthly Bulletin (Spanish only)
Handwashing Series in Spanish and English
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+ EVENTS CALENDAR
2nd African Water Week
November 9-13, 2009, Johannesburg, South Africa
West Africa Regional Sanitation and Hygiene Symposium
November, 10-12, 2009. Accra, Ghana
IWA First Development Conference
November, 15-19, 2009, Mexico City, Mexico
For details on these and other upcoming events, please see our events calendar.
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+ IN OTHER NEWS
News from our partners

The Global Partnership for Output Based Aid (GPOBA) has published a report on n innovative approach to rural infrastructure finance in Kenya.  The approach is facilitating access to finance for community-based water providers by blending output-based subsidies and commercial finance. The project is being implemented by K-Rep Bank, a local commercial bank specialized in microfinance lending, with support from WSP, GPOBA, and the European Union’s Water Facility. The project, which began with 21 sub-projects, is in the process of expanding to a national scale and will target over 165,000 beneficiaries in 55 communities.

The Public Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap (PPPHW) has released the July 2009 edition of SoapBox. This edition features articles on regional handwashing collaboration in East Africa, and an interview with Dr. Val Curtis, winner of the 2009 Health Communicator of the Year Award, bestowed by the British Medical Journal.

After a year of implementation, Water Advocates announced the U.S. WASH-in-Schools Initiative, which extended drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene education (WASH) to 1,000 additional schools.

The World Bank Water Unit has recently released their newsletter and an updated publications catalogue.

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+ WSP NEWS - CONTINUED
AFRICA
Africa to Recognize Sanitation and Hygiene Achievers

The African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW) has announced awards that will recognize outstanding efforts and achievements in sanitation and hygiene that result in large-scale, sustainable behavior changes with tangible impacts. The AMCOW AfricaSan Awards aim to raise the profile of sanitation and hygiene by drawing attention to successful approaches, promoting excellence in leadership, and encouraging innovation in Africa. The first category of awards includes the Leadership and Ministerial Award; the Technical Innovation Award; and the NGO/Civil Society Award. Entries will be reviewed by a technical committee of experts and judged by a panel of eminent sector leaders. Winners will be announced in mid-October and sponsored to attend the Second African Water Week in South Africa that will take place from November 9 to 13, 2009, where they will receive a prize, a trophy, and a certificate. The AMCOW AfricaSan Awards are a partnership initiative led by AMCOW in collaboration with the African Development Bank, UNICEF, Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), the Water and Sanitation Program, and the World Health Organization.

Contact: nominations@africasanawards.org or call: Thompson Abu +234(0)803 311 9493
Water Sector in Kenya Adopts Revised Transfer Plan

Water Service Boards (WSBs) are increasingly responsible for the provision of water services in Kenya.  To manage the efficient, cost effective, and orderly transfer of water services provision to these WSBs, the 2002 Water Act provides for a Transfer Plan to guide the reassignment of responsibilities, rights, liabilities, and assets to the water boards.

In order to keep pace with sector developments, a National Stakeholders Workshop was held in September 2009 to review the Transfer Plan as drawn up in 2005.  The workshop was attended by sector stakeholders such as the Ministry of Water and Irrigation, sector institutions responsible for policy formulation, regulation, oversight, and service provision, the Water and Sanitation Program, and the World Bank.  The workshop recommended fast-tracking of asset transfers and responsibility of water services and use of legal vestment orders to move assets, pensions, and liabilities to the WSBs. It also recommended strengthening the performance and corporate governance of water service providers through clustering, restructuring of the Ministry of Water and Irrigation, de-linking staff seconded to sector institutions, and reforming the budgeting structure to reflect a newly restructured water sector. A working group led by the Ministry of Water and Irrigation was constituted to ensure proper adoption of the Revised Transfer Plan.

Contact: Patrick Mwangi at wspaf@worldbank.org
New Financing Options for Rural Water Systems in Rwanda

A detailed examination of Rwanda’s harmonized funding mechanisms which was recently completed by the government with WSP support found that existing financing modalities are highly fragmented and not appropriate for consistent financing of an ambitious water sector program. The Rwandan Government is currently reforming water sector sector institutions and policies, developing private sector participation, and decentralizing the sector The study was commissioned to support these reforms and the development of a Sector Wide Approach (SWAp) to improving water and sanitation in the country.

A new financing option recommended by the study and endorsed by a national stakeholder workshop is currently awaiting government approval. It proposes a pooled Water and Sanitation Fund that will handle both government and donor contributions through the same national procedures. According to the proposal, districts will submit projects based on their regular planning procedures and will be the project owners (contract holders) while the operational unit managing the Fund will appraise and monitor the projects and ensure technical support, quality assurance, and compliance with sector policies. The new financing mechanism will be established under a new water supply and sanitation authority.

Contact: Madio Fall at wspaf@worldbank.org
Africa Reassesses Progress on Millennium Development Goals

A multi-partner initiative is underway to assess the performance of 30 African countries in delivering the Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) based on benchmarking of sub-sector service delivery pathways, past spending, and future needs versus commitments. This is the second preparation of Country Status Overviews on water and sanitation, dubbed “CSO2,”and is undertaken under the auspices of the African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW). Preparation of the first CSO in 2006 was coordinated by WSP with support from the African Development Bank (AfDB), the World Bank, United Nations agencies, and the European Union Water Initiative and led to the publication of the report: Getting Africa on-track to meet the MDGs on water and Sanitation.

The second round of CSOs is based on benchmarking of WSS service delivery pathways with greater emphasis on in-country consultation, regional peer-to-peer learning, and international policy dialogue through processes such as the Global Framework for Action (GF4A), an emerging international response to the urgent need to get countries back on-track for the WSS MDGs. The CSO2 was requested by AMCOW at the First African Water Week organized by the AfDB in Tunis in March 2008, and endorsed at the African Union Summit in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, in June 2008. The CSO2 partnership includes AMCOW, the African Development Bank, UNICEF, the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and WSP.

Contact: Dominick de Waal at wspaf@worldbank.org

EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

Promoting Handwashing to Prevent Bird Flu in Indonesia

Handwashing with soap has proved to be effective in preventing the spread of diarrhea, bird flu, and acute respiratory infection, however most Indonesians have yet to apply this habit in daily life. Every year, more than 160,000 children in Indonesia do not live to celebrate their fifth birthday because of diarrhea and pneumonia.  The WSP-supported Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap (PPPHWWS) program recently reached out to the easternmost province of Papua to promote handwashing with soap in order to prevent the spread of the H1N1 virus. Hosted by USAID’s Environmental Services Program, the event combined a workshop for 70 officials from Papuan health offices and a field trip to the Argapura waterfront. In August, the PPPHWWS supported the Department of National Education at the School Health Jamboree in Jakarta. In addition to launching the campaign, the program also set up handwashing stations for the participating 600 schoolchildren and 200 teachers. Also in August, the program supported the Department of Health in a national Training of Trainers for Handwashing with Soap in the West Java province. Hosted by the World Bank-supported Third Water and Sanitation for Low Income Communities Project (Pamsimas), the training was attended by officials from 15 participating provinces.  The program aims to improve proper handwashing with soap behavior in Indonesia as the action of choice to reduce the incidence of diarrheal diseases among children under five years old through a coordinated behavior change communication campaign.

Contact: Ida Rafiqah at wspeap@worldbank.org
First Law to Drive Water Sector Reform Passed in Lao PDR

The National Assembly of Lao PDR passed the first law regulating the Water Supply Sector on July 9. At the 7th Ordinary Session of the National Assembly in Vientiane, 98 out of 99 members voted for the passing of the law, which aims to create a legal framework with institutional rights and duties for the diverse range of actors for water services to drive forward sector reform in the country. WSP and the World Bank country office have supported the Ministry of Public Works and Transport , which has been preparing the draft law   since 2005. In May 2009 a WSP-supported consultative workshop on the draft law resulted in the Ministry's revision and refinement of the draft for submission to the National Assembly's Law Committee.

Contact: Ida Rafiqah at wspeap@worldbank.org

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

Over 176,000 Rural Nicaraguans to Receive Better Water Supply and Sanitation

Roughly 176,223 Nicaraguans living in rural areas will receive better and sustainable water and sanitation services, thanks to the Nicaraguan Emergency Social Investment Fund’s (FISE) which recently launched Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (PRASNICA).  This US$23.1 million World Bank-funded four year project builds on lessons and conclusions from WSP supported national sector assessment and survey, conducted in 2005.

WSP is providing technical assistance to FISE for identifying opportunities to involve the private sector.  Recently, two FISE officials visited Peru to learn more about how broad partnerships have been successfully developed to create sanitation markets that allow for private sector participation.

For more information visit the Nicaragua Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (PRASNICA) page.

Contact: David Michaud (World Bank) or Nelson Medina (WSP) at wsplac@worldbank.org

Exploiting the Full Potential of Rainwater Harvesting in Nicaragua

In order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in terms of water supply in Nicaragua, innovative and low-cost approaches are needed, especially in areas with dispersed populations.  Rainwater harvesting is a technology for collecting and storing rainwater for domestic use from rooftops and land surfaces using simple techniques such as barrels, jars, and pots.

A study performed by WSP (El estado de saneamiento en Nicaragua, 2008) has shown that rainwater harvesting technology has a great potential for those areas of Nicaragua where annual rainfall ranges from 2000 – 4000 mm. The minimum rainfall required for cost-effective rainwater harvesting is estimated at 500 mm per year.

Together with the Nicaraguan Water and Sanitation Network (RASNIC), WSP is contributing to the promotion of this technology. The Emergency Social Investment Fund (FISE) and the Nicaraguan Institute of Aqueducts and Sewage Systems (INAA) expressed interest in this alternative technology and its norms for application. The World Bank-funded rural water and sanitation project, PRASNICA, has requested WSP support in systemizing the experiences with this method as an alternative to increase access to safe water at low cost.

Contact: Francisco Carranza at wsplac@worldbank.org

Strengthening Financial Capacity of the Central American Water Sector

The Central America and Dominican Republic Forum for Water and Sanitation (FOCARD-APS), with support of the Global Water Partnership (GWP) and WSP, organized a workshop in Antigua, Guatemala for water and finance specialists to exchange experiences in financial mechanisms, discuss financially viable alternatives, and identify approaches appropriate for the region.  Participants agreed that long term investment plans and trained human resources are basic conditions for sustainable investments and services.

Tariffs, taxes, and transfers (the “three T’s”) were identified as the most common sources to finance WSS services. However even though good experiences on alternative financial models exist, such as public-private partnerships, concessions, debt exchange, cooperative payments, trust funds, and payment for environmental services, they are not always being effectively disseminated and adopted. Within this context, FOCARD-APS will continue to work with national institutions to disseminate and help implement preferred practices.

Contact: Nelson Medina at wsplac@worldbank.org

Managing Risks in Peru

As in many countries, Peru is constantly affected by natural disruptive events such as earthquakes, landslides, or floods. Unplanned territorial development and weak institutions contribute to intensify the problem mitigating the impacts of disasters.
 

In 2007, a 7.9 magnitude earthquake hit Peru’s southern coast leaving 200 thousand people homeless, 1,291 injured and 519 dead.  The critical magnitude of the earthquake also caused great damage in basic services such as water and sanitation, education, health, and telecommunications.

After two years, the reconstruction process led by the Peruvian government is making measured progress.  Although improved water and sanitation services are a priority, a better risk management approach is still missing, resulting in continued vulnerability to future natural hazards.

In response to the demand from a multi-sectoral Risk Management Working Committee, WSP, in partnership with the Canadian International Development Agency, has rolled out a two-year risk management initiative focused on two key issues: 1) developing a risk management policy within the Water and Sanitation Sector and 2) increasing risk management practices in Service Providers.

Within this framework, two relevant studies are being carried out: (1) a Risk Perception Study of the population affected by the 2007 earthquake, which will guide WSP’s support to water utilities and authorities in implementing client-oriented communications initiatives; and (2) a report based on an economic and environmental assessment that will identify the cost of not being prepared for natural disruptive events.

Contact: Gustavo Perochena at wsplac@worldbank.org

Two-way Learning Hub on Hygiene

The Scaling Up Handwashing Behavior Change Project in Peru has begun to share its knowledge to other key Latin American countries. A feature of this new learning philosophy is to promote brief “internships” of project managers from other countries and involve them in the ongoing program of behavior change. The implementation at a national scale in Peru provides the opportunity to learn from a wide range of aspects and diverse local contexts. The advantage is that the “intern” learns from the program as it unfolds, and focuses on their specific need.

To date, the Scaling Up Handwashing Behavior Change Project in Peru has hosted the visit of two Handwashing Coordinators from Central America and Colombia. Both professionals participated in meetings with partners, participated in communications strategy design, saw first-hand examples of implementation during two project site visits, and received specific technical assistance from the core team tailored to their needs. The Coordinators also contributed with insights to the behavior change process in Peru.

Contact: Rocío Florez at wsplac@worldbank.org

SOUTH ASIA

Moving Beyond Open Defecation Free Sanitation in Pakistan

Pakistan has taken an important step towards improved sanitation through a major sector assessment and setting up of a core group that seeks to move communities beyond open defecation free (ODF) status. The Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach has already enabled more than 1,500 villages in Pakistan to achieve ODF status and is expected to reach 15,000 villages by June 2011. This will mean that a third of the rural population of Pakistan would be covered.

To consolidate this progress and scale up learning, a Core Group was formed in August 2008 to advise the government in policy refinement and implementation of its nation-wide sanitation policy.  The Core Group includes senior officials from the key national ministries of Environment and Health, as well as Provincial Planning and Development Departments and international agencies, including WSP. The group commissioned an assessment of CLTS pilots in nine villages in the country. The evidence gathered revealed that CLTS had the potential to motivate communities to achieve ODF status. However, it did not create demand for “improved sanitation,” which, according to the Joint Monitoring Program, implies use of sanitation facilities “that ensure hygienic separation of human excreta from human contact.  The surveyed communities were found using unimproved and unhygienic latrines without taking any substantial effort to upgrade or replace damaged latrines due to limited knowledge of different latrine options available at the household level. A countrywide CLTS implementation strategy will be developed based on the recommendations of the review, and is likely to benefit all communities living in rural areas by 2015.

Contact: Irfan Saeed Alrai at wspsa@worldbank.org

Microfinance Agencies Enable Entrepreneurs in Bangladesh to Provide More Sanitation Technology Options

Over the last five years in Bangladesh, more than 90 million people have moved away from open defecation. While 88 percent of the population now have access to, and are using latrines, ensuring the quality and sustainability of these latrines is crucial. Without ready access to micro-credit and in the absence of well marketed technology options, many households are under pressure to move from very low cost to very high cost technology options with a significant debt burden.  In July,  the Association for Social Advancement: ASA (a leading Micro-Finance Institute) signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Dhaka Ahsania Mission (a national non-governmental organization) to provide loans at low interest to local small entrepreneurs for producing, marketing, and promoting appropriate sanitation technology options. Dhaka Ahsania Mission will pilot the new financing mechanism in Jamalpur Sadar Upazilla (a sub district) with trained entrepreneurs. WSP facilitated this process of linking local private manufacturers with micro-finance agencies to bring finance and technology together to make available a range of affordable sanitation options for households.

Contact: Rokeya Ahmed at wspsa@worldbank.org
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CONTACT INFORMATION
WSP Africa
World Bank
Hill Park Building
P.O. Box 30577-00100
Nairobi, Kenya
Phone (254-20)322 6334
Fax (254-20) 322 6386
wspaf@worldbank.org

WSP East Asia and the Pacific
World Bank
Jakarta Stock Exchange Building
Tower 2, 13th Floor JI. Jend. Sudirman
Kav. 52-53, Jakarta 12190, Indonesia
Phone (62-21)5299 3003
Fax (62-21) 5299 3004
wspeap@worldbank.org

WSP Latin America and the Caribbean
Water and Sanitation Program
Banco Mundial
Mision Residente del Perú
Avenida Álvarez Calderón 185
San Isidro, Lima 27, Perú
Phone (51-1) 615-0685
Fax (51-1) 615-0689
wsplac@worldbank.org

WSP South Asia
World Bank

World Bank
55 Lodi Estate
New Delhi 110003, India
Phone (91-11) 2469 0488/ 2469 0489
Fax (91-11) 2462 8250
wspsa@worldbank.org

WSP Washington DC
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433 USA
wsp@worldbank.org


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