Issue 62 Improving access to water supply and sanitation services for the poor
+ WSP News
bulletEast Asia and the Pacific
bulletLatin America and the
bulletSouth Asia
+ Publications & Learning Resources
+ Events Calendar
+ In Other News


"We now know that households that invest in basic sanitation stand to gain up to seven times their investment in economic benefits. This confirms what we already knew — that sanitation has high social and economic returns — it also arms decision makers with the detailed evidence needed to choose whether and how they allocate resources.”

- Almud Weitz, WSP Senior Regional Team Leader for East Asia and the Pacific, on findings from WSP's new Economics of Sanitation Initiative (ESI – Phase II) Cost-Benefit Study

page break
Follow WSPWorldBank on Twitter
Utility Credit Ratings Help Leverage Domestic Loans for Infrastructure Development
Optimizing Local Government Role in Water and Sanitation Key to Improving WSS Services, Indonesia Learns from Kenya
Indonesia Adopts WSP’s Scaling Up Rural Sanitation Approach
Domestic Private Water Operators in Cambodia Increase Production Capacity by 87%
Financial Institutions, Water Providers, Private Investors Partner to Hasten Service Expansion
Papua New Guinea Health Minister Endorses Call for National Water, Sanitation, Hygiene Policy at Country’s First Sector Workshop: Recommendations Reach Parliament
Starting the Sanitation Marketing Conversation
Governments of Nicaragua, Honduras, Panama Embrace Innovative Software to Improve Rural Water Supply and Sanitation
Bolivian Private Sector Trained Small Water Utilities in New WSS Technologies
Innovative Support Mechanism Extended to Community-Based Organization to Sustain Operation and Maintenance Services
Bangladesh Loses 6.3% of GDP to Poor Sanitation
Back to Top Back to Top
page break
WSP Manager Jae So Highlights the Role of Water and Sanitation in Alleviating Poverty

Change at scale, know-how, and partnerships are three principles at the core of the World Bank’s agenda in supporting its clients in providing improved access to water and sanitation services, said WSP Manager Jae So in a video introduction to The Global Water Crisis Symposium hosted this past November in California’s Silicon Valley by the Social Change Film Festival & Institute (SCFFI). So also highlighted the impact of inadequate water and sanitation on the lives of women and children globally.

SCFFI promotes socially transformative filmmaking by building a global community focused on expanding the reach of conscious social change film and media, through films that generate dialogue, spark policy change, and/or activate communities around key social issues of present day. Scheduled for November 2012 in New Orleans, the film festival’s theme is Water.

Watch Jae So’s video introduction

Contact: Christopher Walsh at
Financing Urban Water Services in Kenya: Utility Shadow Credit Ratings
  To help increase private sector investments in water services — and thus increase the sector’s financial sustainability — the Kenyan Water Services Regulatory Board (WASREB), with support from WSP, has completed a credit assessment of 43 urban water service providers. The assessment aims to provide potential lenders with information about the borrowing capacity of water service providers, and provides utilities with a diagnostic to identify areas for improvement.
Download here Download Summary
Sanitation Finance in Rural Cambodia

The new Guidance Note recommends that sanitation programs in Cambodia: monitor effectiveness of poverty targeting; recognize the advantages of market-led service delivery; potentially use vouchers to encourage sustainable service provision; design finance for long-term improvements in sanitation practice; and develop effective compliance monitoring systems.
Download here

Behavioral Determinants of Handwashing with Soap Among Mothers and Caretakers: Emergent Learning from Senegal and Peru
  Using the FOAM framework to analyze data from two large household surveys, the authors found that two behavioral determinants, beliefs and access to soap and water, can be correlated with handwashing with soap behaviors in both countries for the proxy measures used. In addition, different behavioral determinants will likely have an influence depending on critical time or juncture for washing hands with soap.
Download here
The Power of Primary Schools to Change and Sustain Handwashing with Soap among Children: The Cases of Vietnam and Peru
  Case studies from Peru and Vietnam found that formative research on the behavior, beliefs and influences of primary school children is critical for effective behavior change campaigns targeting children. Teachers are also important advocates but they need technical support. Regardless of the approach taken, both case studies demonstrate the importance of working with children as key agents for changing behavior.
Download here
Trends in Private Sector Participation in the Indian Water Sector: A Critical Review
  This new field note based on a recent WSP study reveals India's water sector is increasingly focusing on: water distribution improvements, the emergence of a variety of contractual structures — not just full concessions — an increased share of public funding, and the growing role of domestic private operators. The study covers 26 successful as well as failed attempts in the urban water supply sector since 1990.
Download here
Vietnam: A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey for the Caretakers’ Program
  In order to design an effective behavior change program, formative research must be conducted to inform development of the communications strategy, program interventions, and the monitoring and evaluation system. Further, handwashing behavior change campaign messages based on mothers’ aspirations for their children are more effective in changing behavior than presenting facts and figures related to the causes of diarrhea.
Download here
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Challenges in Latin America for the Next Decade
  In 1999, the World Bank Group convened experts from the rural water and sanitation sector to analyze, compare, and develop proposals to improve conditions in rural areas. A decade later, Cusco+10 was convened in Peru to analyze progress and challenges, highlight lessons learned, and set new targets for the next ten years. This publication summarizes insights from Cusco+10.
Download here
Handbook for Community-Based Water Supply Organizations
  Handbook for Community-Based Water Supply Organizations elaborates on basic concepts of managing a small piped water system for households. The handbook presents a step-by-step guide to operations, maintenance, and management to help professionalize community-based water systems.
Download here
Economics of Sanitation Initiative: Phase II Findings from Indonesia and Philippines
  The Economics of Sanitation Initiative (ESI) is a multi-country study launched in 2007 as a response by WSP to address major gaps in evidence on the economic aspects of sanitation in developing countries. The ESI series aims to provide economic evidence to support increases in the volume and efficiency of public and private spending on sanitation. Phase II of ESI — launched during World Water Week 2011 in Stockholm — provides key findings of the study.
Download Indonesia Download Philippines
Back to Top Back to Top
page break
World Water Forum
Marseille, France. March 12 – 17, 2012
World Water Day
March 22, 2012

Water Utility Management and Pricing Policy Workshop
Lemesos, Cyprus. April 3, 2012

Singapore International Water Week
Sands Expo and Convention Center, Singapore. July 1 – 5, 2012
World Water Week
Stockholm, Sweden. August 26 – 31, 2012
Back to Top Back to Top
page break
News from our partners

African Water Facility Launches Annual Report
The African Water Facility is proud to announce the recent publication of its 2010 Annual Report 2010.

Download the report here.


New Infectious Disease Laboratory Will Significantly Advance Health Research on Malaria and Waterborne Diseases for West Africans

New Research Center Represents an Important Investment in African Medical Research

A partnership between Vestergaard Frandsen, and the Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research (NMIMR) at the University of Ghana, resulted in the opening of a new Research Centre at the University of Ghana. “The new Research Centre is an excellent demonstration of a public-private partnership that will not only progress the science of public health and build capacity, but also help tackle the many diseases that affect us,” said the Honorable Joseph Yieleh Chireh, minister of health for the Republic of Ghana.

“We are honored to partner with the Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research at the University of Ghana to support mutually beneficial research and development of tools to fight infectious disease in West Africa,” said Mikkel Vestergaard Frandsen, CEO and owner of Vestergaard Frandsen. “Together we can improve the health of Ghanaians and all West Africans by increasing knowledge and creating next generation tools to fight disease.”


Off-track, Off-target: WaterAid Releases New Report 
To mark World Toilet Day on November 19, WaterAid released a new report Off-track off-target: Why investment is not reaching those who need it most, which shows that today 2.6 billion people lack access to adequate sanitation services; more than there were in 1990. The report calls on donor countries to double global aid flows to water, sanitation and hygiene.


Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council’s Medium-Term Strategic Plan 2012 – 2016
The Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) Steering Committee approved a new Medium-Term Strategic Plan (MTSP) covering the period 2012 to 2016. The approval came during the WSSCC-organized Global Forum on Sanitation and Hygiene, which was held October 9 – 14 in Mumbai, India. Nearly 500 practitioners from 70 countries participated in the event. For more information about the forum, visit The full MTSP report is available in English and French, together with executive summaries in English, French and Spanish.


WASH Media Awards
The Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council together with the Stockholm International Water Institute is hosting the fourth edition of the WASH Media Awards, a major international media competition, giving journalists who report on the importance of sanitation, hygiene and drinking water an opportunity to be recognized for their contribution in highlighting these critical development issues. Those interested are requested to send entries before 1 April 2012. For more information see:


“Talking $h!t”
Team defeatDD at PATH loves to “talk $h!t” so they made a video about it.


Water and Sanitation for Africa Hosts Forum on Hygiene, Sanitation and Water in Africa
Water and Sanitation for Africa (formerly the African Centre on Water and Sanitation, or CREPA), an inter-governmental organization with operations in 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, hosted the High-level Forum for Hygiene, Sanitation and Water in Africa December 5 – 8 in Ouagadogou, Burkina Faso. Ministers and high-level officials from 33 African governments participated in the forum.

The outcome of the meeting — the Ouagadogou Declaration — articulated sets of recommendations to other governments and institutions in the region, the Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) High-level Meeting in Washington and the 6th World Water Forum (WWF6) respectively.

Contact Ali Dissa ( or Juanita During (


Handshake — IFC’s Quarterly Journal on Public-Private Partnerships
Cities & PPPs, the fourth issue of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) quarterly journal Handshake, is now available online. In original articles and interviews, experts explore how thoughtfully tailored urban infrastructure can enhance the proximity among people that makes innovation possible, and how PPPs facilitate urban growth on a scale and timeline that would be impossible without private capital.

Handshake, a free digital magazine, is accessible through this website, Facebook, Twitter, and Scribd, and can be read on iPhone, iPad, and Android.

Subscribe by clicking here or at


Sanitation and Safe Water for All
Sanitation and Safe Water for All (SSAWA) is a pilot IFC program to support promising market based approaches in the water and sanitation sector. The program, now underway in Kenya, is the first in a series of market briefs developed under the program, available at The website will be updated as the program develops.

Back to Top Back to Top
page break
Utility Credit Ratings Help Leverage Domestic Loans for Infrastructure Development

Water utilities in Kenya could prove creditworthy borrowers for domestic lenders looking to expand their loan portfolios, according to a new report released by the Kenyan Water Services Regulatory Board (WASREB) with support from the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program and Public- Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF).

Following an assessment of 43 Kenyan urban water service providers, 13 were rated “creditworthy” another 16 were rated “potentially creditworthy,” while the remaining 14 utilities will “require substantial reforms” before accessing credit financing. The results of the credit assessment were released in a new WSP technical report, Financing Urban Water Services in Kenya: Utility Shadow Credit Ratings.

Water utilities serve only 40 percent of the population in Kenya’s urban towns and cities. Access to finance is often a key constraint to extending coverage to un-served consumers, especially as utilities have traditionally relied on public funds from government and development partners to finance capital investments. These resources are limited and the additional investment needs are too large to be funded from utility revenues alone.

However, investments made in the extension and rehabilitation of distribution networks can often generate financial returns to cover the investment costs where cost recovery tariffs are employed to cover operating and maintenance (O&M), capital investment, and debt service costs.

“In the face of Kenya's projected urban population growth rate of about 7 percent annually, utilities are hard-pressed to keep up with demand,” notes Wambui Gichuri, regional team leader for WSP in Africa. “More investment by the private sector would contribute towards expanding access in urban areas and achievement of national targets.”

The credit assessment aims to provide potential private sector lenders with information about the borrowing capacity of urban water service providers and provide utilities a diagnostic to identify areas for improvement.

"The gap between funds available to water utilities and the demand for water infrastructure continues to grow,” says Adriana de Aguinaga de Vellutini, program manager for PPIAF, which provided support for the credit assessment study. “It is therefore important to facilitate the process of mobilizing additional funding for developing the water sector to ensure sustainable service delivery. The credit rating exercise gives the utilities a clear sense of the actions to be performed to enable them to improve creditworthiness and fund their considerable infrastructure backlogs.”

The assessment rated the 43 water service providers in areas particular to a utility, such as financial and credit management, management quality and capacity, operational performance, as well as external factors such as economic base, susceptibility to external shocks, and changes in sector policy.

The shadow ratings were based on a domestic rating scale that benchmarks water service providers against an AAA domestic rating for the Government of Kenya.

“The results of the credit assessment not only allow water utilities to identify areas for improvement and exchange of good practices, but also provide an opportunity for them to take positive steps, and possibly even make policy changes, to address performance challenges that hinder access to credit,” says Gichuri

Contact: Rajesh Advani at
Optimizing Local Government Role in Water and Sanitation Key to Improving WSS Services, Indonesia Learns from Kenya

The water sector in Indonesia is borrowing lessons from Kenya on how to facilitate access to financing for small-scale rural water projects. In November 2011, a delegation of national government ministries, local government departments responsible for water supply, and partner local banks from East and West Java provinces in Indonesia visited Kenya to learn about the Maji ni Maisha (Water is Life) project.

Maji ni Maisha is a WSP innovation started in 2007 to facilitate micro-financing for community water supply via a partnership with K-Rep Bank. By November 2011, a new loan worth US$1.3 million had been approved and nine projects were under construction. So far, approximately 49,834 consumers have benefitted from increased access through water kiosks in the pilot phase of the project. Lessons from this initiative are expected to inform the Second Generation Project - a similar initiative in Indonesia that works with seven local banks in six districts. Both initiatives are supported under WSP's program on Sustainable Services through Domestic Private Sector Participation.

The delegation from Indonesia made field visits to two community water projects (Kiamumbi Water Project and Kiambi Water Project) as well as to Kayole Soweto Informal Settlement, the Embu Water and Sewerage Company and the Water Services Trust Fund. They also met with an asset-owner - the Tana Water Services Board.

Some of the key observations made by the visiting team are that the Kenyan community mindset to demand for paid water instead of merely demand for water service for free may be one reason why rural water provision in Kenya seems to be easier than in Indonesia. That mindset is well-accompanied with communities’ active contribution in maintaining the sustainability of the service. The team also noted that having a specifically-tailored financial institution is another advancement of Kenya’s water sector. The mission of K-Rep Bank’s Kenya – Rural Enterprise Program is to serve the funding demands of community development programs such as water, education, and small and medium enterprises.

It was also observed that, in general, Indonesia lags behind in institutional-setting and service-delivery in the sector, particularly in the absence of a centralized and well-coordinated institutional setting, for which Kenya’s Water Act provides a good framework.

Following the insight gained from the trip, the Indonesia team plans to take these steps to improve and sustain service-delivery:

  • Optimize local government’s roles in building and strengthening working groups
  • Improve the professionalism of rural water service providers
  • Seek support from central government in the development of rural water management
  • Leverage funding from financial institutions (bank and non-bank) for water service expansion

Contact: Jemima Sy at


Indonesia Adopts WSP’s Scaling Up Rural Sanitation Approach

Indonesia has adopted new total sanitation operational guidelines, which draw on WSP’s experience of the four-year Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing Project in 29 districts of East Java, Health Minister Endang Rahayu Sedyaningsih told representatives from 200 districts during this past October’s Community-Based Total Sanitation National Coordination Meeting.

Citing the project’s success in eradicating open defecation and obtaining access to proper sanitation to 1.2 million people in East Java, the minister said that for total sanitation to be successful, each district needs to assign specific roles for each actor and identify specific interventions to be executed by the different levels of institutions engaged in the sector. Ten out of Indonesia’s 33 provinces have committed to implementing total sanitation as per the new guidelines.

Contact: Almud Weitz at
Domestic Private Water Operators in Cambodia Increase Production Capacity by 87%

Since mid-2009, nine domestic private operators in Cambodia have increased their piped water coverage from 38% to 70%. Among the benefiting households, 20% are identified as poor or very poor. These results stem from WSP’s pilot program targeted at strengthening the capacity of domestic private water providers, which has improved the business, financial, and technical performance of small-scale operators in Cambodia.

Through the pilot program, production capacity has increased by 87% across all nine providers (from 495 m3/hour to 925m3/hour). Since the start of the project, the total piped network has increased by 38% (from 143,450 meters to 199,300 meters), and the number of new connections has increased from 15,292 households to 18,953 households (24%).

The program has successfully influenced government’s attitude towards small-scale private providers, recognizing their important role in scaling-up water supply delivery, inclusive of the poor. With over 300 small private providers country-wide, the potential of these businesses to deliver services to the poor is significant.

Based on feedback from operators, 90% of participating private operators highly value peer-to-peer learning, such as exposure visits and learning forums, and are interested in continuing to share successes and challenges. This approach, complemented by coaching visits and formal training, has proved to be cost-effective in improving business operations.
Contact: Phyrum Kov at

Financial Institutions, Water Providers, Private Investors Partner to Hasten Service Expansion

Joint financing by two or more rural banks will now be possible to meet growing demands for financing in areas where Community-Based Water Organizations (CBOs) outgrow the capacity of the local rural bank(s). This stems from a new partnership between the Association of Indonesian Rural Banks (Perbarindo) and the Association of CBOs to expand water service in East Java (Aspamindo). Under Indonesian regulations, a rural bank can usually operate only in its designated district.

Indonesia’s Ministry of Public Works has agreed to facilitate the partnership between both associations, which is expected to speed up service improvement and expansion as part of efforts to meet the province’s water Millennium Development Goal target . Under the agreement, rural banks have agreed to help build CBO capacity, particularly in commercial systems and financial reporting.

The agreement was fostered through an October 2011 meeting hosted in East Java by the Ministry of Public Works, during which WSP paired bankers with CBOs managing rural water supply. The meeting enabled participants to share experiences of professionalizing selected CBOs over the past three years.

Meanwhile, the Ministry of Public Works, WSP and the AusAID-funded Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII) have facilitated the signing of a cooperation agreement between CBOs and a private company, PT Mitra Lingkungan Dutaconsult, for a five-year build-lease-transfer agreement. Under the agreement, the first of its kind in Indonesia, PT Mitra will invest in a 3-km distribution pipe network, transmission pipe installation, and construction of a reservoir that will add 1,483 new household connections within five years.
Contact: Deviariandy Setiawan at

Papua New Guinea Health Minister Endorses Call for National Water, Sanitation, Hygiene Policy at Country’s First Sector Workshop: Recommendations Reach Parliament

Papua New Guinea’s (PNG) Health Minister Jamie Maxtone-Graham in November 2011 endorsed the call for a national policy on water, sanitation and hygiene in the country’s first national workshop on the subject.

After discussing the results of a perception survey of the status of urban and rural water and sanitation service delivery in PNG, participants concluded that the country needs a national policy to help systematically scale up existing approaches and that additional sector analysis is needed as part of the policy development process.

The Minister responded to final survey feedback that he wanted to “prevent disease, not build bigger hospitals.” He asked the European Union's Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (RWSSP) to present the workshop’s conclusions to Parliament in November.

The Minister’s endorsement was covered widely in national news media outlets, with TV coverage and newspaper articles appearing the following day. Held in Port Moresby, the workshop was supported by the European Union, WaterAid Australia, and WSP.
Contact: Isabel Blackett at


Starting the Sanitation Marketing Conversation

To address the interconnected challenges of improving rural sanitation at large scale — including triggering behavior change and increasing the supply and demand of sanitation goods and services — WSP has tested an approach that combines Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and sanitation marketing. CLTS has been implemented in East Asia, South Asia, and Africa to motivate communities to end open defecation and improve their facilities, with promising results. However, sanitation marketing, which draws on social and commercial marketing approaches, is relatively new.

To generate discussions and learning, WSP has developed an Introductory Guide to Sanitation Marketing and an online companion, Sanitation Marketing Toolkit, by Jacqueline Devine and Craig Kullmann.

The guide and toolkit introduce principles, key tips, and share documents from WSP’s experience developing rural sanitation marketing programs in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Peru, and Tanzania. Topics include: Conducting Formative Research, Developing a Marketing Strategy, Designing a Communication Campaign, and Implementation. In addition, the toolkit features narrated overviews (see sample), videos, downloadable documents including research reports and sample questionnaires (see sample), and an assessment component.

Read the Feature Story
Contact: Jacqueline Devine and Craig Kullmann at


Governments of Nicaragua, Honduras, Panama Embrace Innovative Software to Improve Rural Water Supply and Sanitation

Over the past year, a joint World Bank/WSP team has collaborated with the governments of Nicaragua, Honduras, and Panama to develop a software program designed to facilitate greater exchange and monitoring capability of rural water supply and sanitation systems. Known as SIASAR, which is the Spanish acronym for Information System for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation, the software uses open-source information systems to improve the performance of the rural water supply and sanitation sector.

SIASAR seeks to enhance processes such as: planning, decision-making, learning, and monitoring by providing data on:

  • Coverage of WSS services
  • Quality and maintenance of WSS systems
  • Sustainability of community organizations involved in the sector
  • Effectiveness of technical assistance

SIASAR Version 1.0 will be accessible through a web-based interface available on Android smartphones. Testing and rollout will take place in 2012.

The team is also collaborating with the Inter-American Development Bank to reach more Central American countries.

Contact: Yehude Simon at
Bolivian Private Sector Trained Small Water Utilities in New WSS Technologies

For the first time, private sector and small water utilities gathered to learn from each other in a three-day international fair on water and sanitation, organized by the Bolivian government with support from WSP.

The event covered four topics relating to water supply and sanitation (WSS):

  • Access to water and sanitation as a human right
  • Climate change from the sector perspective
  • Sustainability and the Bolivian regulatory framework
  • Case studies based on local experiences

During a knowledge exchange session on best practices, representatives from Colombia presented a partnership experience between the municipal government of Medellin and water utilities, which allowed for mitigation of issues beyond utilities’ influence, such as the disruption of the sewerage network as a result of insufficient drainage systems.

The fair congregated international guests, 147 CEOs and technicians from nearly 80 service providers, and 18 specialized providers who showed new WSS products lines. The event became an unprecedented training session where water utilities received technical support to face problems that occur beyond their area of influence.

Contact: Yehude Simon at
Innovative Support Mechanism Extended to Community-Based Organization to Sustain Operation and Maintenance Services

In Pakistan, the Government of Punjab finalized its strategy to launch a mechanism to support community-managed rural water supply schemes in sustaining their operations. Under this mechanism, which will serve a population of 24 million, all community groups managing their drinking water schemes can now access technical and financial assistance.

In order to protect assets worth US$216 million (Rs. 18,869 million), the Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) has devised this mechanism to extend technical, managerial, and financial support to Community-Based Organizations (CBOs) responsible for the operation and maintenance (O&M) of schemes. A diagnostic survey, conducted by PHED in 2009 with support from WSP, revealed that almost 49% of these schemes became dysfunctional soon after the communities took control. Over the past 20 years, out of the 4,058 tube well-based piped network schemes, handed over to CBOs for O&M, only 2,448 are functional. Thus the significance of this back-up support is viewed by many as a revolutionary step.

WSP has been providing technical assistance to the PHED in sustaining community-managed operations. This includes training the operators (community groups, CBOs, and domestic private entrepreneurs) to help articulate the provincial drinking water policy, conducting diagnostic surveys for community operations, and organizing a performance awards competition among CBOs.
Contact: Masroor Ahmad at

Bangladesh Loses 6.3% of GDP to Poor Sanitation

Inadequate sanitation cost Bangladesh economic losses equivalent to 6.3%, or US$4.2 billion, of the country’s GDP in 2007, according to a recent report by WSP, Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in Bangladesh.

Several factors put improved sanitation on top of the priority list for Bangladesh. First, with a rapidly increasing population of 160 million people, Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Second, frequent floods in a large part of the country,make sanitation a continuous challenge. And third, an estimated 5 million people live in slums — more than 3 million in Dhaka city alone.

Losses due to inadequate sanitation equal nearly US$30 per capita. This does not include secondary costs associated with the absence of women and girls from the workplace, or the time it takes to travel distances for open defecation.

Although a significant loss, most of the economic impacts of poor sanitation in Bangladesh are related to health factors. Losses resulting from premature mortality account for three-fourths of all economic impacts. Diarrhea is the most detrimental health factor, especially among children, who often pay the highest price for poor sanitation. The report suggests that Bangladesh could gain an equivalent of 3.4 percent of its GDP by improving hygiene practices and the quality of sanitation — as Bangladesh comes close to universal coverage, investments in moving up the sanitation ladder and moving away from shared latrines could bring back about US$2.26 billion (BDT 158.4 billion) annually.
Contact: Rokeya Ahmed at

Back to Top Back to Top
page break
WSP Africa
World Bank
Hill Park Building
P.O. Box 30577-00100
Nairobi, Kenya
Phone (254-20)322 6334
Fax (254-20) 322 6386

WSP East Asia and the Pacific
World Bank
Jakarta Stock Exchange Building
Tower 2, 13th Floor JI. Jend. Sudirman
Kav. 52-53, Jakarta 12190, Indonesia
Phone (62-21)5299 3003
Fax (62-21) 5299 3004

WSP Latin America and the Caribbean
Water and Sanitation Program
Banco Mundial
Mision Residente del Perú
Avenida Álvarez Calderón 185
San Isidro, Lima 27, Perú
Phone (51-1) 615-0685
Fax (51-1) 615-0689

WSP South Asia
World Bank

World Bank
55 Lodi Estate
New Delhi 110003, India
Phone (91-11) 2469 0488/ 2469 0489
Fax (91-11) 2462 8250

WSP Washington DC
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433 USA



The Water and Sanitation Program ( is a multi-donor partnership administered by the World Bank to support poor people in obtaining affordable, safe, and sustainable access to water and sanitation services.
Read more | Our donors

Copyright 2011 WSP, All Rights Reserved. All Rights Reserved. Terms and Conditions. Privacy Policy.

To unsubscribe from this newsletter, send and email to with the subject line "unsubscribe".
Water and Sanitation Program, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C 20433, U.S.A.