December 2010 Improving access to water supply and sanitation services for the poor
CONTENTS
+ WSP News
bulletAfrica
bulletEast Asia and the Pacific
bulletGlobal
bulletLatin America and the
Caribbean
bulletSouth Asia
+ Publications & Learning Resources
+ Events Calendar
+ In Other News
 

"The report that we have received today will be an invaluable tool in strengthening the Ministry's proposal for planning and resource allocation as we move towards the 12th five year planning period."

- E.P. Nivedita, Director, Ministry of Urban Development on the WSP Economic Impacts of Sanitation in India report

 

 
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+ WSP NEWS
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AFRICA
Fresh Lessons Emerge on Private Sector Involvement in Small Water Supply Systems
Africa Honors Sanitation and Hygiene Champions
EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
Indonesia’s Second Largest Bank Opens Doors to Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing
Indonesian Government Acts on WSP Sanitation Study Results
GLOBAL
Lessons on Sanitation and Water Development Recognized by International Finance Corporation
WSP's 2011 Cartoon Calendar Depicts Sanitation and Water Challenges amid Green Growth
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
Delegation from India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan committed to adapt Peruvian rural experiences in their own countries
World Bank’s US$100 Million Loan to Include WSP’s Recommendations on Disaster Risk Management

50,000 Nicaraguans to Benefit from Better Sewage Connectivity

SOUTH ASIA
Inadequate Sanitation Costs India the Equivalent of 6.4 Percent of GDP
Millions in Bangladesh Benefit from the Scaling-up of 23 Good Practices
Pakistan’s Punjab Province Addresses Water Inequities through First Ever Water Act
Installation of Individual Water Meters Increases Revenue Collection by 15 Percent in Bangladesh
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+ PUBLICATIONS & LEARNING RESOURCES
VIDEOS
 
Citizen's Report Card on Water & Sanitation in Kenya
WSP launched an initiative to heighten the voice of citizens in the Kenyan water and sanitation sector through the use of Citizen's Report Cards . The feedback is garnered through citizen surveys and provides quantitative and qualitative measures of user perceptions on the quality, efficiency, adequacy, and priority improvements for a range of different public services.
Contact: Yosa Yuliarsa at wspeap@worldbank.org
 
PUBLICATIONS
Progress Report of the Global Scaling Up Rural Sanitation Project
  The Progress Report of the Global Scaling Up Rural Sanitation Project shows how in India, Indonesia, and Tanzania, the project has reached an estimated 8.2 million people who have obtained access to, and use improved sanitation, and how over 5,000 communities have become open defecation free.
Download here
Contact: Eduardo Perez, wsp@worldbank.org
Climate Risk Screening of the WSP Portfolio in India: Identifying Key Risk Areas and Potential Opportunities
  From floods and cyclones to drought conditions and water scarcity, poor people in India are already vulnerable to climate-related shocks and stresses. In this Field Note, the major issues of climate change as they affect rural and urban water supply and sanitation in India are addressed through a risk screening of WSP’s work during 2009–10.The Field Note also provides recommendations on adaptation measures and an associated draft action plan.
Download here
Contact: Nicholas Pilgrim and Nabaroon Bhattacharjee, wspsa@worldbank.org
Output-Based Aid and Sustainable Sanitation
  A new joint GPOBA/WSP Learning Note, Output Based Aid and Sustainable Sanitation, shows evidence from existing projects that suggest OBA could improve the targeting and efficiency of subsidy delivery, and help to develop and strengthen sanitation providers.
Download here
Contact: Almud Weitz, wspeap@worldbank.org or Christopher Walsh, wsp@worldbank.org
Scaling Up Rural Sanitation: Findings from the Impact Evaluation Baseline Survey in Indonesia
  In East Java, baseline data was collected in the WSP Global Scaling-Up Rural Sanitation Project area. Among other findings, the survey reveals high rates of diarrhea and associated disorders such as childhood anemia. These health outcome measures will continue to be tracked during the project to assess the causal impacts of the project intervention. The full report is available in Scaling Up Rural Sanitation: Findings from the Impact Evaluation Baseline Survey in Indonesia.
Download here
Contact: Eduardo Perez, wsp@worldbank.org
Managing the Flow of Monitoring Information to Improve Rural Sanitation in East Java
  WSP’s Global Scaling Up Rural Sanitation has linked community-based sanitation access monitoring  in real time with district and province level databases. A key innovation has been the development of a monitoring system that uses cell phones, SMS-text messaging, and a central database to transmit and store information reported from the field.
Download here
Contact: Eduardo Perez, wsp@worldbank.org
Scaling Up Handwashing Behavior: Findings from the Impact Evaluation Baseline Survey in Vietnam
  In Vietnam, baseline data was conducted in the WSP Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project area. The research shows that 47 percent of caregivers report washing hands with soap after using the toilet and less than one-third wash their hands with soap at other critical times, such as before preparing food. However, the survey also reveals the prevalence of diarrhea is significantly lower than the most recent national statistics, findings that shifted the IE focus in Vietnam from tracking disease to measuring behavior change.
Download here
Contact: Eduardo Perez, wsp@worldbank.org
Guidance Note: Sanitation Options for Challenging Environments
  The Guidance Note focuses on identifying sanitation technologies suitable for challenging environments. It also highlights four main challenging environment types in Indonesia, in which 10 million people live on marginal land or over water with adverse geographic and climatic conditions.
Download here (Language: Bahasa)
Contact: Enrico Rahadi Djonoputro, wspeap@worldbank.org
Global Scaling Up Handwashing: Annual Progress Report
  The Progress Report highlights the work in Peru, Senegal, Tanzania, and Vietnam, of WSP’s Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project which has now reached 2.1 million people through interpersonal communication (68% of end-of-project, or EOP, targets) and 615,000 people in direct consumer contact events (91% of EOP target). In addition, mass media channels carried behavior change messages to more than 20 million people from July through December, 2009 and nearly 18 million people from January through June, 2010.
Download here
Contact: Eduardo Perez, wsp@worldbank.org
Promoting Transparency, Integrity and Accountability in the Water and Sanitation Sector in Uganda
  This note describes the key ingredients to putting in place a nationwide good governance action plan in Uganda’s water sector, the challenges to be overcome and lessons learned to date.
Download here
Contact: wspaf@worldbank.org
Délégation de gestion du service d’eau en milieu rural et semi urbain
  This field note reviews the first generation of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) for small piped water schemes in seven countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, and Senegal. The field note proposes a framework for moving towards more sustainable piped water PPPs. The framework comprises four building blocks to consider: improving contracting practices, the enabling environment, the capacity of the PPP stakeholders, and information tools and services.
Download here
Contact: wspaf@worldbank.org
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+ EVENTS CALENDAR

The IBNET Water Supply & Sanitation Performance Blue Book Launch
12pm in J1-050 Auditorium, Washington D.C., January 12, 2011

East Africa Practitioners Workshop on Pro poor Urban Sanitation and Hygiene
Kigali, Rwanda, end February 2011 [date to be confirmed]
World Water Day
March 22, 2011
6th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use & Management of Water
Jordan, March 29-April 2, 2011
Conference on Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS)
Manila, Philippines, May 25-28, 2011
Singapore International Water Week
July 4-8, 2011
ADB Water Event: Water Crisis and choices
July 11-14, 2010
AfricaSan 3 on Sanitation and Hygiene
Kigali, Rwanda - July 19-21, 2011
Contact: Yolande Coombes, ycoombes@worldbank.org
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+ IN OTHER NEWS

News from our partners

From “hotspots” to “hopespots”, the Africa Water Atlas maps out challenges and opportunities for water across Africa's 53 countries
This Atlas is a visual account of Africa's endowment and use of water resources, revealed through 224 maps and 104 satellite images as well as some 500 graphics and hundreds of compelling photos. It gathers information about water in Africa and its role in the economy and development, health, food security, transboundary cooperation, capacity building and environmental change into one comprehensive and accessible volume. UNEP undertook the production of this Atlas at the request of the African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW) and in cooperation with the African Union, European Union, US Department of State, United States Geological Survey and other collaborators.

The Atlas along with its summary for Decision Makers is available for free download at http://na.unep.net/atlas/africaWater/book.php

All the materials in the Atlas are non-copyrighted and available for free use as long as the Atlas is acknowledged as the source. .
http://na.unep.net/atlas/africaWater/book.php

World Bank’s Water Sector Writing Contest on Wikipedia
The World Bank Wikipedia writing contest is an effort by the World Bank to engage with Universities for its Wikipedia Pilot Project (WPP). The competition is open to students currently enrolled at participating universities worldwide. First place contestants will be offered invitations for a week-long paid visit to the World Bank Water Week from 31 January – 04 February 2011 in Washington D.C.

The WPP project started in 2006 and maintains overviews of the water sector in a particular country or city, in the categories water supply and sanitation, water resources management, integrated urban water resources management, and irrigation. So far World Bank staff largely compiled these pages on Wikipedia, but now it is asking the broader academic community to participate in their preparation and maintenance.

The World Bank Wikipedia writing contest includes three categories in which to compete (contestants may only choose one):

1. Writing an original Wikipedia note on a water topic
2. Updating current Wikipedia notes on water OR
3. Preparing a comparative analysis based on existing Wikipedia water notes.

Submission deadline: 31 December 2010.
The three winners, one in each category, will be announced on 14 January 2011.
For more information and to register, please send your inquiry to: lacwikipedia@worldbank.org.
lacwikipedia@worldbank.org

Public consultation of WWDR4 first draft is now open!
The first draft of the Modules 1 and 2 of the upcoming 4th edition of the United Nations World Water Development Report (WWDR4) has been released and is open for public comment.
www.unesco-wwap.org/wwdr4blog

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+ WSP NEWS - CONTINUED
AFRICA
Fresh Lessons Emerge on Private Sector Involvement in Small Water Supply Systems

Emerging lessons on sustainability show that delegated management of small piped water supply systems - mostly in the form of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) - is steadily taking root, and points to encouraging results, such as increases in coverage and revenues in Mozambique and Uganda, for instance. However, more needs to be done to reap the full benefits of this approach, as discussed in a recent practitioners’ workshop on Sustainable Management of Small Piped Water Supply Systems in Africa, which was held from October 6-8 in Maputo, Mozambique. 

Convened jointly by the Government of Mozambique and WSP, the Maputo Workshop was a follow up to the landmark conference on International Water Supply and Sanitation for Small Towns and Multi-village Schemes held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in 2002. The Addis Conference identified several ingredients for successful management of WSS in towns, which are still valid today. The key ingredients include financial and managerial autonomy, transparency and accountability, professional support for technical and financial skills, competition for the market and in the market, establishing a legal framework and regulation, responding to the demand for service, and creating incentives for expansion for WSS operators.

The objective of the Maputo workshop was to review and share experiences on how to implement these key ingredients in making small piped water supply systems in towns and villages in Africa sustainable.  More than 130 practitioners from 17 countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, representing local governments, private sector, regulators, water ministries, and commercial banks, attended the event.  Some of the key messages included:  the importance of blending public and private sources of financing such as grants and commercial loans to water operators, the need for business plans to further establish financial viability of water systems, and for contracts to allow for private operators to reach profitability and recover investments made.  

A short field note describing the experiences and lessons learned from the participating countries will be released in early 2011.
Contact: Peter Hawkins at wsp@worldbank.org
Africa Honors Sanitation and Hygiene Champions

A musician and activist, whose songs about using latrines and washing hands are positively influencing the hygiene practices of communities in Mozambique; a widow who has risen through her caste status to lead a campaign against open defecation in her village in Ethiopia; and a toilet entrepreneur, whose innovative partnership with local authorities is changing the way public toilets in Kenyan towns are managed, are the top winners of this year’s African Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW) AfricaSan Awards.

The winners were announced by the AMCOW Task Force on Sanitation during Africa Water Week in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from November 22 to 26, 2010. The AMCOW AfricaSan Awards are dedicated to recognizing outstanding efforts and achievements in sanitation and hygiene in Africa which result in large-scale, sustainable behavior changes and tangible impacts. AMCOW is the driving force behind the AfricaSan movement, a regional initiative that seeks to place sanitation and hygiene at the top of the development agenda in Africa.

Musician Feliciano dos Santos won the Grassroots Champion Award for dedicating his life and his music to campaigning for better public health through clean water and adequate sanitation.

Takiso Achame, a widowed member of a marginalized community in the remote village of Shashera in Southern Ethiopia, was picked for the Distinguished Woman Leader in Sanitation for her exemplary local leadership over a communal cause.

David Kuria won the Public Service Award for implementing a partnership model that is delivering safe, clean, and affordable sanitation to the urban poor in Kenya. 

In 2008, the Africa Union Heads of State Summit mandated AMCOW to co-ordinate implementation and monitoring of the eThekwini Declaration – which seeks to assist African countries to accelerate the achievement of national and global targets on water, sanitation, and hygiene. The AMCOW AfricaSan Awards are administered by the AMCOW Task Force on Sanitation, whose membership includes: WSP, the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council , the African Development Bank , UNICEF, the UN Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation , UN-Water Africa, WaterAid and the Africa Civil Society Network on Water and Sanitation (ANEW).

For more information on the awards and winners visit: www.africawaterweek.org
Contact: Toni Sittoni at wsp@worldbank.org
 

EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

Indonesia’s Second Largest Bank Opens Doors to Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing

The airing of a sanitation talk show on local East Java TV station JTV, which also aired WSP’s Marketing Sanitation in East Java video clip, drew interest from the country’s second-largest bank, Bank BRI, which later offered a sanitation credit to a WSP-trained sanitation entrepreneur interviewed on air.  The tv spot also inspired the local government to invite WSP’s Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing project to join its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Forum.

On the show, one of the WSP-trained sanitation entrepreneurs, Haryanto, expressed his concerns over lack of capital to meet growing demands from the local sanitation market and difficulties in obtaining bank credit. Other sanitation entrepreneurs featured in WSP’s video also shared Haryanto’s concerns.

Two days after the broadcast, Haryanto was contacted by Bank BRI, offering him a non-collateral credit under a government scheme that targets individuals and community groups in rural areas. The scheme provides loans amounting to roughly US$550. Per Haryanto’s recommendation, Bank BRI provided him with US$13,750 to finance sanitation construction for five groups. The talk show is one of many collaborative initiatives of the Jawa Pos Institute for Pro Otonomi  and WSP.

Consequently, the Regional Development Planning Agency of the East Java Province working with WSP has been asked to join the CSR Forum. Having watched the broadcast, the Agency’s Budi Santosa said, “I think we could introduce and promote your trained entrepreneurs to our members. It seems that the difficulties to access credit faced by the sanitation entrepreneurs can be dealt with through Bank Jatim’s CSR partnership program.”  Bank Jatim is owned by the provincial administration.
Contact: Djoko Wartono at wspeap@worldbank.org
Indonesian Government Acts on WSP Sanitation Study Results

A new WSP study found that there are approximately 10 million people in Indonesia living in challenging geographical environments, where sanitation access proves especially difficult.  Some of the poorest communities live on marginal land or over water in Indonesia. Due to adverse geographic and climatic conditions in these areas, neither conventional nor well-known alternative sanitation options are feasible at affordable prices.

The Government of Indonesia has endorsed a new WSP study assessing challenges and technologies involved in improving sanitation.  Sanitation Options in Challenging Environments, a WSP Guidance Note published in October in Indonesian, is the first study in Indonesia that centers on sanitation options in a challenging geography.
The study identifies four main types of challenging environments in Indonesia:

  • coastal and estuary
  • river
  • swamp and high water table
  • flood prone

The Guidance Note was disseminated to stakeholders through workshops in three cities across the country in October and November, involving government officials from central to district levels, as well as academia. The workshops led to the Government’s decision to use the Guidance Note as reference material in preparing sanitation interventions for challenging environments, and to produce a Guideline Book consisting of detailed designs and costs of each sanitation option.  The Government will also collaborate with WSP to develop an interactive web-based guidance note for local governments.

We find the Guidance Note very useful because some of the challenging environment characteristics specified in the book are similar to those in Jambi.,” said Suroso from the Jambi Provincial Health Office. Tri Iwansutanto from Jambi’s Regional Development Planning Agency added, “This will help us select the most suitable sanitation systems for specific areas in the city of Jambi.”
Contact: Enrico Djonoputro at wspeap@worldbank.org
 

GLOBAL

Lessons on Sanitation and Water Development Recognized by International Finance Corporation

Millions of people living on the outskirts of cities and in rural areas of Kenya have organized to provide water supply service themselves, since the public utilities do not reach there.  But many of these facilities are run down as a result of years of lacking maintenance. Leaking distribution and storage and inadequate water sources are common.  The communities want to rehabilitate and expand the facilities, but there are no funds available. 

One of the first prize winners of the IFC’s Smartlessons - an IFC/World Bank awards program to enable development practitioners to share lessons learned in advisory services and investment and financial operations – is Using Market Finance to Extend Water Supply Services in Peri-Urban and Rural Kenya , in which WSP’s Rajesh Advani describes how under a new program, communities can borrow up to 80 percent of the cost of the rehabilitation and development from K-Rep Bank, a Kenyan commercial bank specializing in microfinance lending.

The remaining 20 percent of the project cost is financed by equity from the communities. Upon satisfactory completion of the project, up to 40 percent of the total project cost is paid to the community as a subsidy provided by the Global Partnership for Output-Based Aid, while WSP provides technical assistance and supervises the program. The subsidy is paid against predetermined output targets set at the time of taking the loan, such as the increase in new connections and the increase in average monthly revenue from the project. 

WSP SmartLessons submissions also won second prizes for Promoting Sanitation Markets at the Bottom of the Pyramid in Peru: A Win-Win Scenario for Government, the Private Sector, and Communities by Malva Baskovich, and Improving Rural Water Service in Rwanda with Public-Private Partnerships by Christophe Prevost, Bruno Mwanafunzi, and Nitin Jain.

SmartLessons also published the following articles highlighting WSP knowledge:
Sanitation Market Development: A Head Start for Healthier Living
Dealing with Informality in Water Supply Service in Indonesia
Helping Small Water Utilities Become Bankable
Marketing Rural Sanitation Improvements in Tanzania
The Enterprise Resource Management System for Water Service Providers in Cambodia

Contact: Christopher Walsh at wsp@worldbank.org
WSP's 2011 Cartoon Calendar Depicts Sanitation and Water Challenges amid Green Growth

Although many uncertainties exist with respect to climate change, some things remain certain.  One is that the water sector is one of those most directly affected by climate change.  In addition to adding a new strain on an already underdeveloped infrastructure, droughts, floods, storms, and other extreme weather events can turn roads into waterways, and turn water supply into breeding grounds for disease. 

Another challenge is becoming clear:  the poorest are the first and worst impacted.  For example, recent experience in Haiti and Pakistan has shown how quickly flooded areas can become breeding grounds for disease such as cholera.

This year, the World Bank/Water and Sanitation Program Cartoon Calendar depicts sanitation and water challenges in the developing world with an eye towards potential related impacts from the changes in the Earth’s climate.  We hope these cartoons help keep these issues in mind as decisions are made around action that can improve the lives and livelihoods of poor people around the world.
Contact: Christopher Walsh at wsp@worldbank.org

 

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

Delegation from India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan Committed to Adapt Peruvian Rural Experiences in Their Own Countries

A team of 21 high level government authorities and WSP project leaders from India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, recently visited Peru to acquire successful experiences, management models, and know-how in the execution of water and sanitation initiatives. 

In Lima, the representatives from South Asia had the opportunity to participate in an informative session presented by the Ministry of Finance, Vice Ministry of Sanitation, National Sanitation Board, and the National Program of Rural Sanitation (Pronasar) about the current state of the water and sanitation sector and of the National Sanitation Plan (2006-2015).

Although Peru has reached its Millennium Development Goal target for water and sanitation coverage, service quality and sustainability remain major challenges. To this end, the Peruvian government has allocated approximately US$5 billion in the last four years (an average of 15 percent of its national budget per year) to improve infrastructure, strengthen capacity, and develop education projects, as part of its poverty reduction policy.

In Sechura, a city with 33 thousand inhabitants; the delegation met Progestion, a private water operator, who started its activities in 2005 with the participation of the community. In three-years (2005-2008), Progestion’s management achieved important results, for example, the sewerage coverage grew from 25% to 33%; the billing efficiency rose from 48% to 94%, and the Non revenue water decreased drastically from 60% to 25%.

In Cuzco, a region comprised mostly of rural population, guests had the opportunity to dialogue with local authorities, entrepreneurs, and community leaders. The team also visited two field projects: an example of the Creating Sanitation Markets initiative in the locality of Chinchero, and the SDC-supported Regional Program of Sanitation, implemented in the locality of San Salvador, which is helping to increase rural household access to water and sanitation.

The country delegations showed a high level of participation throughout the visit. At the end of the tour, the team members shared the most important lessons and the main actions they expected to implement in their countries.
Contact: Mercedes Zevallos at wsplac@worldbank.org
World Bank’s US$100 Million Loan to Include WSP’s Recommendations on Disaster Risk Management

The Government of Peru will sign a US$100 million Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option (CAT DDO) loan to strengthen its capacity to both mobilize resources during a disaster, and to promote disaster risk reduction in the different government sectors. In this context, the Disaster Risk Management (DRM) Project, under implementation by WSP, played a key role providing knowledge and technical assistance in such a way that water and sanitation actions were incorporated in the CAT DDO Policy Commitment. 

As mentioned in earlier editions of ACCESS, the WSP Disaster Risk Management Project is a pilot project implemented in the areas affected by the 2007 Pisco earthquake.  Activities include developing risk reduction guidelines and the production of management tools for urban water utilities to effectively integrate DRM practices in the sector.  This is the first such project of its kind in Peru. The last version of the CAT DDO includes the recommendations of WSP’s DRM Project, for example it calls for commitment from the water and sanitation authorities of the Peruvian Government to develop disaster risk reduction guidelines for urban water utilities. It also recommends that at least four of these authorities develop and implement those guidelines in their own planning by 2013.
Contact: Gustavo Perochena at wsplac@worldbank.org

50,000 Nicaraguans to Benefit from Better Sewage Connectivity

Approximately 50,000 residents in Managua will benefit from pilot projects that use the new condominial system of managing household sanitation connections.  The condominial system, which requires homeowners to make collective decisions regarding monetary, maintenance, and development matters, sparked interest among participants at a specialized workshop led by the World Bank and WSP to address ways of increasing the rate of household connections to new sewer systems.

Community leaders, along with 35 specialists from the Nicaraguan Water Utility Enacal, the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (Prasnica), and the Municipality of Managua convened at the workshop to share good practices on low-cost sewer systems in Latin America; raise awareness of the importance of social participation to achieve better results; and identify meaningful lessons to strengthen the Nicaraguan water and sanitation sector.

The condominial system raised interest because this participatory approach has led to substantial reductions in construction costs and improved operation and maintenance.  As a result of the meeting, authorities from Enacal with support from the World Bank-funded PRASMA project (Water and Sanitation Program of Managua) have begun implementing this system through pilot projects, which if successful and scaled up, have the potential to benefit millions.
Contact: Nelson Medina at wsplac@worldbank.org

SOUTH ASIA
Inadequate Sanitation Costs India the Equivalent of 6.4 Percent of GDP

Inadequate sanitation causes India considerable economic losses, equivalent to 6.4 per cent of India’s GDP in 2006 at US$53.8 billion (Rs.2.4 trillion), according to The Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in India, a new report from WSP.

The study analyzed the evidence on the adverse economic impacts of inadequate sanitation, which include costs associated with death and disease, accessing and treating water, and losses in education, productivity, time, and tourism. The findings are based on 2006 figures, although a similar magnitude of losses is likely in later years.

The report indicates that premature mortality and other health-related impacts of inadequate sanitation, were the most costly at US$38.5 billion (Rs.1.75 trillion, 71.6 percent of total impacts), followed by productive time lost to access sanitation facilities or sites for defecation at US$10.7 billion (Rs. 487 billion, 20 percent), and drinking water-related impacts at US$4.2 billion (Rs. 191 billion, 7.8 percent).

“For decades we have been aware of the significant health impacts of inadequate sanitation in India,” said Juan Costain, WSP Regional Team Leader for South Asia. “This report quantifies the economic losses to India, and shows that children and poor households bear the brunt of poor sanitation."

The full report, due out later this fiscal year, follows a WSP study released in 2007 on the economic impacts of sanitation in Southeast Asia, a part of the Global Economics of Sanitation Initiative.

Contact: Vivek Raman at wspsa@worldbank.org
Millions in Bangladesh Benefit from the Scaling-up of 23 Good Practices

Union Parishads, or UPs, are the village-level, local democratic unit in Bangladesh, and together as many as 208 UPs have allocated US$1.9 million from their annual development program’s budget for 2010-11, to replicate 23 good practices under the Horizontal Learning Program (HLP).

From its inception in November 2007 to June 2010, the HLP has succeeded in helping over 0.65 million people to secure access to arsenic-safe water in 51 UPs; nearly 1.6 million people to gain improved access to safe water in 56 UPs; and 1.2 million to access improved sanitation facilities in 42 UPs. As many as 3.54 million, including women and the marginalized, participated in planning meetings in 208 UPs.  

The HLP is a UP-led and outcome-based, peer-to-peer learning initiative, facilitated by the Government of Bangladesh and supporting development partners. It connects Local Government Institutes (LGIs) with each other and helps identify, share, and replicate good practices in different LGIs.  
 
Lessons learned from the HLP informed the Implementation Plan for Arsenic Mitigation (IPAM 2009) while helping the Government incorporate learning in ongoing and upcoming projects. These practices empowered women and vulnerable groups by ensuring transparency through open budget meetings; increased own source revenues by motivating local taxpayers; facilitated 100 percent sanitation coverage and improved hygiene practices through social mobilization; and mitigated arsenic poisoning in drinking water through community participation. HLP has helped develop environment-friendly villages where a comprehensive and integrated approach for safe disposal of excreta and wastewater, and efficient solid waste management are being followed.  

The HLP intervention brought about significant change in different UPs. For instance, Omarmajid UP of Rajarhat upazila accomplished 100 percent arsenic screening, which they learned from Chowgacha upazila, who replicated environment-friendly villages after following the Khansama upazila’s example. Similarly, UPs under Tarash upazila learned the technique of protecting hand pumps from Rajarhat upazila.  Simple “how-to” messages created greater efficiency in people’s lives.
Contact: Santanu Lahiri at wspsa@worldbank.org

Pakistan’s Punjab Province Addresses Water Inequities through First Ever Water Act

The Chief Minister of the Pakistan’s Punjab province has developed and submitted for approval the first-ever "Punjab Municipal Water Act." Once approved by the government, the Act will legally enable the establishment of the “Water Commission,” which would act as Punjab’s first water regulator.
The Act will help address inequities in the provision of safe drinking water in the province, which is home to nearly 90 million people.  Less than half the population has access to piped drinking water and less than 30 percent of the rural population has access to clean drinking water.

The Act also will allow more autonomy for communities operating and managing water supply systems, which are abundant in rural settings.  Significantly, it has come after the recent 18th constitutional amendment in Pakistan, which empowers provinces to carve out their own policy and regulatory framework on subjects assigned to them.

It is among the four strategic documents that the Government of Punjab has finalized:  the Municipal Drinking Water Act, the Drinking Water Policy, the Drinking Water Strategy, and the Back up Support Mechanism for community managed schemes.

The Drinking Water Policy focuses on ensuring safe drinking water for all; sustainability of water resources; addressing poverty through appropriate allocations; and bringing greater clarity in institutional roles and performance-based criteria for service delivery.

The Drinking Water Strategy details the modus operandi of the provincial government regarding execution of plans and programs through various partners at the provincial and local levels. The strategy sets out a roadmap with activities and timelines.

The “back up support mechanism” for community managed schemes is a strategic document that focuses on the post-handover strategy of the Public Health Engineering Department towards communities who take over rural water supply schemes from the department for operation and maintenance (O&M). This will ensure consistent technical and back up support to communities who face challenges in O&M of rural water supply schemes. Technical support was provided by WSP, UNICEF, and the Rural Support Programs Network, a national NGO. The draft policy was developed by the provincial government and is presently under consultation with the relevant departments
Contact: Masroor Ahmad at wspsa@worldbank.org

Installation of Individual Water Meters Increases Revenue Collection by 15 Percent in Bangladesh

Residents of Satkhira, a small town in southwest Bangladesh, moved from a fixed, to an individual billing system, increasing bill collection efficiency from 80 percent to 95 percent and reducing the bill collection period from 15 months to three months.

Half the town’s 130,000 people were connected to piped water through 6,500 domestic connections. Underground water was treated for iron and arsenic and in the absence of a surface water source, the cost of producing water was high. Depending on the diameter of each connection pipe, consumers were charged a flat monthly rate between US$1.14 to US$1.42. This fixed billing system meant that several families living in multistoried buildings were being billed for a single house connection, leading to huge revenue and water losses for the utility.

New meters were introduced for all households in 2007-08 and consumers charged US$0.14 for 10 m3of water. Seeing a spike in their bills, many multistoried owners and water wasters lodged complaints with the Mayor, accusing the utility of excessive billing, and faulty meter-reading.

To win back their trust, the utility installed a simple water meter testing area to verify the new billing. They visited households, brought the meter to the test area, and tested it in front of homeowners.

Results of 100 tested meters, along with official explanations, served as evidence to disprove any meter-tampering. The utility now provides a bill against readings based on consumption, which customers pay through the bank.

Today, other urban water utilities acknowledge this as an effective means to reduce non-revenue water and increase revenue while improving the utility-consumer relationship. In fact the installation of water meters and testing devices at the local level has been identified as a best practice by another 24 utilities, which do not have water meters. WSP facilitated an exposure visit to Satkhira for members of these utilities, which have since decided to install water meters to improve service delivery and revenues.
Contact: Md. Akhtaruzzaman at wspsa@worldbank.org

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CONTACT INFORMATION
WSP Africa
World Bank
Hill Park Building
P.O. Box 30577-00100
Nairobi, Kenya
Phone (254-20)322 6334
Fax (254-20) 322 6386
wspaf@worldbank.org

WSP East Asia and the Pacific
World Bank
Jakarta Stock Exchange Building
Tower 2, 13th Floor JI. Jend. Sudirman
Kav. 52-53, Jakarta 12190, Indonesia
Phone (62-21)5299 3003
Fax (62-21) 5299 3004
wspeap@worldbank.org

WSP Latin America and the Caribbean
Water and Sanitation Program
Banco Mundial
Mision Residente del Perú
Avenida Álvarez Calderón 185
San Isidro, Lima 27, Perú
Phone (51-1) 615-0685
Fax (51-1) 615-0689
wsplac@worldbank.org

WSP South Asia
World Bank

World Bank
55 Lodi Estate
New Delhi 110003, India
Phone (91-11) 2469 0488/ 2469 0489
Fax (91-11) 2462 8250
wspsa@worldbank.org

WSP Washington DC
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433 USA
wsp@worldbank.org


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