December 2009 Improving access to water supply and sanitation services for the poor
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-In loving memory of our friends and colleagues, Ratna Indra Josodipoero and Ousseynou Diop.
Cartoonists Depict Human Behavior Impacts on Water and Sanitation

WSP for the last ten years has created and disseminated a cartoon calendar, using humor and satire to support the placement of water and sanitation challenges high on the development agenda.  This 10-year anniversary edition will depict issues of behavior as it relates to water and sanitation.  To request a copy of this year’s calendar please click here.  Requests will be fulfilled on a first come, first served basis.

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10,000 Celebrate Global Handwashing Day in Kenya
Promoting Handwashing with Soap to 1.5 Million People in Senegal
Mali Professionalizes Rural Water Supply Management
Improving Access and Quality to Rural Water Services in Rwanda
Strengthening Information Management in the Benin Water Sector
Monitoring Total Sanitation Progress via SMS in East Java
Sanitation Marketing Takes Off in Cambodia
15 Million Students Join Handwashing Day
US$150,000 in Microcredit Provide Sanitation Access to Thousands
WSP’s Methodology for Sanitation Decentralized Plans Embraced by Peruvian Government
Global Scaling Up Sanitation Project Exceeds Milestones
Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project Looks Ahead
2.7 Million People Gain Access to Sanitation in Himachal Pradesh, India
Bangladesh Local Governments Double Revenues, Complete Aresenic Safety Checks
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Determinants of handwashing practices in Kenya: the role of media exposure, poverty and infrastructure.  The European Journal Tropical Medicine & International Health, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Robert Aunger, Yolande Coombes, Peninnah Mukiri Maina, Carol Nkatha Matiko, Adam Biran, Val Curtis, Volume 14 Issue 12, Pages 1534 – 1541, 30 Sep 2009.
Setting up pro-poor units to improve service delivery

Introducing SaniFOAM: A Framework to Analyze Sanitation Behaviors to Design Effective Sanitation Programs Global Scaling Up Sanitation Project: Second Annual Progress Report

Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project Second Annual Progress Report

Water and Sanitation Program End of Year Report FY 2009

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World Bank Sustainable Development Forum
January 19-21, 2010, Washington, DC, USA
International African Water and Sanitation Congress and Exhibition
March 15 – 18, 2010, Kampala, Republic of Uganda
For details on these and other upcoming events, please see our events calendar.
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News from our partners

A World Bank report, The costs to developing countries of adapting to climate change: new methods and estimates: the global report of the Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change Study,notes that water supply and flood management rank as one of the top three climate adaptation costs in both the wetter and drier scenario, with Sub-Saharan Africa footing by far the highest costs.  The study estimates that over the next 40 years, global adaptation costs for water supply and sanitation infrastructure will be US$700 million per year.

WaterAid has launched a new six year strategy, which targets providing a further 25 million poor people with safe water, and reaching 100 million more through a commitment to influencing policies and practices of governments and service providers. The WaterAid strategy also states the organization’s aim to work in 13 new developing countries.

The International Initiative for Impact Evaluation recently completed a literature review of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene interventions in reducing childhood diarrhea morbidity.  The review finds that while point-of-use water quality interventions appear to be highly effective, much of the evidence is from trials conducted over small populations and short time periods. The review also finds hygiene interventions, particularly provision of soap for handwashing, are effective in reducing diarrhea morbidity, and that there does not appear to be evidence that compliance falls over time.

A recent AGUASAN workshop, held in Switzerland, reviewed promising management models of rural water supply services.  The workshop participants noted that community management models are common; however there are a few key ingredients for success in managing rural water supply services. The report details case studies from Burkina Faso, Kosovo, Tanzania and Switzerland.

The Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) produced a website for resources for capacity building and policy analysis in the field of infrastructure management and regulation.  The site includes case studies that highlight practices relevant to infrastructure reform.
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10,000 Celebrate Global Handwashing Day in Kenya

Joining others from over 80 countries, 10,000 children from schools in Kenya celebrated the second annual Global Handwashing Day on October 15 with performances and presentations bearing key messages of handwashing with soap.

Under the Kenyan handwashing campaign ‘Clean hands save lives,’ school children have been identified as agents of change, who can bring good practices of hygiene learned at school to their homes and communities. 

In Kenya, 16 percent of deaths among children below the age of five are due to diarrhea, second only to pneumonia as the primary cause of death in children of this age.  Millions of shillings are spent on treatment annually, yet it can be prevented if simple hygiene measures such as washing hands with soap and water are observed at critical moments.   WSP is committed to ensuring that people understand the importance of, and practice washing hands with soap as an effective and affordable way to prevent the spread of diseases. In the coming two years, the handwashing campaign in Kenya will scale up to 50 districts, and is expected to reach more than 3 million children in 5,000 schools all over the country.

Contact: Japheth Mbuvi at
Promoting Handwashing with Soap to 1.5 Million People in Senegal

The Government of Senegal, with the support of the WSP Scaling Up Handwashing Project, is aiming to change the behavior of 1.5 million people in Senegal, focusing on mothers, caretakers, and children in four regions.  A baseline study launched in 2008 determined that only 15.3 percent of the target populations wash their hands with soap and water at critical times.  Behavior change would have a massive effect on the health and wellbeing of a large portion of the population at a relatively low cost.

The Government of Senegal is now coordinating the project through the Public Private Partnership for Handwashing (PPPHW) steering committees hosted by the Ministry of Health and implementation is supported by a variety of Ministries including Education, Local Government, and Water.  The project has also made strategic alliances with the private sector at the national and local level. So far, the implementation of the project has shown that using different communications efforts and tools to repeatedly target the same group highly increases the chances for creating a positive and lasting impact on behavior.  To ensure the sustainability of handwashing behavior, the project is aiming to integrate handwashing campaigns into local institutions such as schools, health clinics, and local government offices. The project also aims to ensure handwashing behavior change becomes a common element in other programs such as education, nutrition, and rural water supply and sanitation.

Contact: Seydou Koita at
Mali Professionalizes Rural Water Supply Management

To facilitate the collection, analysis, and sharing of information, the National Water Department in Mali (DNH) is contracting Manobi SA from Senegal to provide mobile-to-web services to the water and sanitation sector. Manobi will develop a dedicated application and configure cell phones for its mWater platform, and provide those on a pilot basis to 30 operators in order to facilitate regulation and to improve the provision of business development services by technical and financial auditors already in place (known as "STEFI" operators). DNH is supporting the managerial transfer of rural and small town water supply to the private sector in an effort to improve services and professionalize management. Currently, 19 private operators run small piped water systems, which provide services to more than 250,000 people.

To ensure the success of the public-private partnership process, DNH is developing an action plan with support from partners, including the French Development Agency (AFD), Denmark's Ministry of Foreign Affairs (DANIDA), the Public Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), UNICEF, and WSP. In November 2009 DNH is launching extended support to municipalities for the establishment of 20 additional public-private partnerships. Municipalities will receive support to execute technical diagnostics, business plans, and tendering of services while DNH will strengthen the regulatory framework by developing tools and procedures adapted to delegated managment. In addition, DNH is exploring partnership options with microfinance institutions and local banks, so that operators and municipalities can gain access to funds on a sustainable basis for their investment programs.

Contact:Thomas Fugelsnes at
Improving Access and Quality to Rural Water Services in Rwanda

In 2004 the Government of Rwanda promoted engaging the private sector in the management of rural water service provision. Since 2004, roughly a quarter, or 200, of all rural water schemes are managed by the private sector.  The quality of water service provision has also improved, with many attaining 24 hour service.  The result has been an increase in demand for private connections.

The government expects to attain the target of having more than 50 percent of all rural water systems managed by private operators by 2012.  WSP continues to provide support to build the capacity of private operators and district level local authorities.  This improved capacity will ensure sustainability of existing contracts and a scale up of private operations in water management.

Contact: Bruno Mwanafunzi at
Strengthening Information Management in the Benin Water Sector

Benin’s Water Ministry with support from WSP is implementing since June 2009 a new information and knowledge tool to support rural drinking water supply (RWS) stakeholders, including decentralized local governments, in strengthening bottom-up planning, budgeting, and performance.  The new tool has been packaged within the Sector Information and Monitoring System (SIMS), an information framework for the management and monitoring of the African water sector.

The results of the first phase of this initiative that consists of water point inventories prior planning and budgeting at local level are delivered in November 2009 as planned The six decentralized districts of the ALIBORI region (North Benin) have completed necessary steps to monitor and update the exact location of water points and populations served in their territory.  This was accomplished through the following tool components:

  • Mapping of the spatial distribution of water points in each district
  • Production of a handbook for district level water point inventory developed from the results of the pilot methodology endorsed by the RWS Sector
  • Development of a procedure for water point functionality monitoring at the decentralized district level. 

This initiative is currently being replicated in 11 other regions in Benin with support from African Development Bank (AfDB), DANIDA, Dutch Cooperation, and GTZ/KfW.
The following step expected to provide inputs for 2011 Benin RWS sector program budget will start from January 2010 in this pilot region (ALIBORI) with WSP support.

Contact: Sylvain Adokpo Migan at


Monitoring Total Sanitation Progress via SMS in East Java

In October 2009 the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM) project piloted a short message service (SMS)-based sanitation monitoring system in East Java, Indonesia. By using the system to improve the flow of information about the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) triggering process from the community- to the district level, Indonesians will also be able to improve monitoring results of the CLTS program. Each designated health officer or sanitarian periodically sends text messages comprising the baseline and progress data - such as the number of households with newly constructed latrines - to an SMS gateway or server, which automatically updates the TSSM progress monitoring instrument. So far the trial has been successful in that the conversion of SMSs into the digital monitoring format worked well without errors, updates have been in real-time without the need for data entry or editing, and the system has been stable and compatible with any computer system.

Outputs from the trial will be shared with all sanitarians in the TSSM project at a meeting in November 2009. The system is expected to be replicated by the entire 29 districts in the province. TSSM aims to help 1.4 million additional people in all districts of East Java gain effective access to improved sanitation.

Sanitation Marketing Takes Off in Cambodia

A local mason in Cambodia has seen his monthly income jump from US$50 to nearly US$400 in a matter of weeks after joining the Sanitation Marketing Project, which aims to have over 10,000 toilets installed by households in rural villages over a period of 18 months through market force and demand creation activities.

Producers are asked to invest a minimum of US$500 and produce three Easy Latrines per day.  These affordable and simple, pour-flush latrine cores sell for as low as US$25 in villages.  Local producers receive training in sanitation and hygiene education, latrine production, and basic business and sales management.

Nearly 70 Easy Latrines have been sold since the beginning of the project in October, and another 150 orders have been placed to producers. Five producers have participated in the project and there is a backlog of other producers waiting to be trained as the sanitation marketing concept moves forward.  The sales and orders have experienced an increasing trend week after week, and it is expected that the target will be reached by the end of the project in April 2011.

The local mason has decided to invest more by purchasing another trailer for his motorbike in order to deliver more latrines to villages.  He has also begun to sell his latrines to supply shops in the region as a secondary means of distribution. One supply shop is even selling the latrine core without making a profit, as they expect to earn their profits from the above-ground components that they will sell in conjunction with the core.

Contact: Jan-Willem Rosenboom at
15 Million Students Join Handwashing Day

Global Handwashing Day, held annually on October 15th, was particularly successful in Indonesia with 15 million schoolchildren participating under the theme “Handwashing with Soap in Schools.”Schools, integrated health centers (Posyandu), and local governments took part in the celebrations. The WSP-supported Public Private Partnership for Handwashing (PPPHW) distributed information packs with a Planners Guide, a Handwashing with Soap Story Book, Handwashing with Soap Games and stickers to over 2000 health centers and hundreds of schools. This year’s event saw an increasing number and type of participants, ranging from local soap producers to plasma TV manufacturers. Global Handwashing Day was implemented through the PPPHW, and jointly organized by the Ministry of Health, World Health Organization (WHO), World Food Programme (WFP), UNICEF, and WSP. 

In Jakarta, the Director General of Communicable Diseases and Environmental Health, Tjandra Yoga Aditama, led a rally of 500 students and 150 teachers from the Islamic mass organization Muhammadiyah’s primary schools in Jakarta to promote the importance of handwashing with soap to prevent the spread of the H1N1 virus and other communicable diseases. “Global Handwashing Day this year has raised awareness among many components of society. We are optimistic that this program will sustain and that the number of people washing hands with soap properly will keep increasing,” said Aditama. Also present was a visiting delegation from the Government of Vietnam.

Contact: Ida Rafiqah at


US$150,000 in Microcredit Provide Sanitation Access to Thousands

The Creating Sanitation Markets in Peru Initiative has reached a new milestone, allocating over US$150,000 in credit towards improved sanitation for people otherwise ineligible for commercial loans. 

A recent WSP market research poll discovered many potential sanitation customers in Peru are ineligible for a sanitation credit since their income is above the limit to receive support from governmental programs, but below the expected salary to be eligible for a commercial loan (US$50 to US$170 per month).  Recognizing the growing demand for sanitation products among these customers, small local businesses affiliated with the Initiative, such as hardware stores,have begun accepting payment in installments.  This allows people who do not qualify for a loan, or who feel more confident dealing with their local storekeeper, to have a viable opportunity to invest in a new bathroom for their homes.

The local business owners assume the risk for the loan, which is provided to customers who have a working relationship with the business owner.  Typically the loans do not bear interest or additional charges.

Latin America and the Caribbean

See how access to sanitation markets is changing people’s lives in this “before and after” slideshow.

Contact: Malva Baskovich and Mercedes Zevallos at

WSP’s Methodology for Sanitation Decentralized Plans Embraced by Peruvian Government

Following the development of sanitation action plans by four regional governments in Peru and supported by WSP, the Ministry of Housing and Sanitation has published an Administrative Ruling (Resolución Ministerial), which formally approves the same methodology in the remaining 20 regions (see ACCESS May, 2009).

These initial action plans were developed by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and WSP. Subsequent policy dialogue with key actors from the central government led to development of the official document (Resolución Ministerial), which highlights the methodology that will “orientate and facilitate the regional planning process of the sanitation sector,” strengthening the decentralization process in Peru. The full document is available by clicking here (Spanish only).
Contact: Iris Marmanillo at


Global Scaling Up Sanitation Project Exceeds Milestones

To date, 4.2 million people in three countries have gained access to improved sanitation services and 1,236 communities have become open-defecation free (ODF) due to project activities, representing 94 and 55 percent of global end of project targets, respectively. In year three of a five-year project, these results are a promising indication that combining Community-Led Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM) is an effective approach, and that implementing a sanitation program at scale is achievable.

At the Global Scaling Up Sanitation Project’s Third Annual Global Meeting, held October 25-31 in India, project staff shared insights into creating and sustaining an enabling environment, working with local governments, the role of social and economic incentives, training, monitoring, impact evaluation, knowledge management, and sustainability.

For additional project results, see the 2009 Annual Report.

Contact: Eduardo Perez at
Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project Looks Ahead

In year two of the five year project, the Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project has reached 28.6 million women and children through localized communications campaigns and trained more than 14,000 people to facilitate and support handwashing with soap behavior change, representing 74 and 47 percent of the global end of project targets, respectively. For additional project results, see the 2009 Annual Report.

“You must be flexible and ready to take advantage of any opportunity,” said Rocio Florez de Cilloniz, WSP Water and Sanitation Specialist. In Peru, an initiative to design, manufacture, and install handwashing stations is supported by a network of schools, health workers, private sector companies, regional and local authorities, as well as Duraplast, a plastic manufacturer. To date, 36,000 stations have been distributed in 12 regions.

“Participants (at the November project annual meeting) departed Vietnam with a better comprehension of how a country’s institutional and policy context has influenced the design and implementation arrangements of the project,” said Hnin Hnin Pyne, WSP Senior Public Health Specialist. 

In the coming year, the project will focus on scaling up coverage, measuring progress on behavioral determinants and behavior change, inducing habit formation to ensure lasting behavior change, strengthening institutional conditions to sustain interventions, and sharing knowledge to impact policy and programmatic actions in additional countries.

The project is currently being implemented in Senegal, Peru, Tanzania, and Vietnam. While each country has developed unique implementation strategies that reflect a range of institutional, social, political, and economic conditions, important commonalities are emerging, such as the wide range of public and private partnerships needed to facilitate and scale up project activities, and the immense attention required to develop local capacities.

Contact: Eduardo Perez or Hnin Hnin Pyne at


2.7 Million People Gain Access to Sanitation in Himachal Pradesh, India

Nearly 2.7 million people over the past three years gained access to safe sanitation facilities in the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, as sanitation coverage has increased from 30 percent in 2006-2007 to 89 percent in 2009. This was achieved through the Government of India-supported Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), implemented by the state government.  In 2006-7, the state adopted the CLTS approach, which sought to mobilize demand at the collective level through participatory, community-based approaches. 

This intervention was supplemented by decentralized institutional frameworks to improve the enabling environment, and national and state incentive schemes for outcomes to support improvements already made. This was due in part to the government having invested roughly US$6.5 million for poorer households, and US$28 million (US$70 per household) in other sanitation investments for better-off households from their own resources. Around 800 out of the 3,200 village-level governments have become Open Defecation Free. WSP supports the Government of Himachal Pradesh (GoHP) in scaling up total sanitation across the rural areas of the state under the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM) project, which is also supporting the Government of India Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC).

Contact: C Ajith Kumar at

Bangladesh Local Governments Double Revenues, Complete Aresenic Safety Checks

In a little more than a year, 128 rural local governments in Bangladesh, or Union Parishads (UPs), have strengthened accountability to their citizens by sharing and replicating a range of 21 good practices under the program. Results so far include:

  • revenues doubled in over 92 UPs because of open budget meetings
  • 9 UPs ensured all water sources under their jurisdiction have become safe from arsenic after implementing more than 40,000 arsenic tests
  • 44 UPs eradicated open defecation through the promotion of eco-villages; and
  • 9 UPs created women’s forums that promote such practices as improved targeting of ration cards for lactating mothers.

The horizontal learning program focuses on outcome-based, peer-to-peer learning.  Representatives of UPs identify their own good practices, set verifiable indicators, and invite other UPs to review and potentially replicate these practices.  The process is based on appreciative inquiry, whereby UPs that are noted for particularly good practices in one area are asked to share their insights with the other UPs. In 2008-2009, a total of 62 UPs allocated Taka 24.2 million (US$350,000) of their own annual budgets for the replication of these practices to the benefit of more than 3.1 million people.

All of the 500 local, central, and non government partners have been now linked through a mobile Short Message Service (SMS) system with over 9000 messages sent in the last four months. On the basis of this experience, the horizontal learning approach is being replicated in Pakistan and the Inter Country Working Group (ICWG) of SACOSAN, which resolved in August 2009 to use horizontal learning to identify the best sanitation practices in South Asia.

Contact: Santanu Lahiri at
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WSP Africa
World Bank
Hill Park Building
P.O. Box 30577-00100
Nairobi, Kenya
Phone (254-20)322 6334
Fax (254-20) 322 6386

WSP East Asia and the Pacific
World Bank
Jakarta Stock Exchange Building
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Kav. 52-53, Jakarta 12190, Indonesia
Phone (62-21)5299 3003
Fax (62-21) 5299 3004

WSP Latin America and the Caribbean
Water and Sanitation Program
Banco Mundial
Mision Residente del Perú
Avenida Álvarez Calderón 185
San Isidro, Lima 27, Perú
Phone (51-1) 615-0685
Fax (51-1) 615-0689

WSP South Asia
World Bank

World Bank
55 Lodi Estate
New Delhi 110003, India
Phone (91-11) 2469 0488/ 2469 0489
Fax (91-11) 2462 8250

WSP Washington DC
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433 USA



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